In high pressure sporting situations, it is normal that even elite athletes may experience a varying degree of feelings and emotions.
These feelings could, of course impact — negatively or positively — on behaviour and performance McLaughlin, Anxiety Sport Literature Review Abrahams, Anxiety — defined by Lazuras a, p. Attentional Control Theory ACT — has been floated as an extension of PET Processing Efficacy Theory and suggests that anxiety can negatively here upon the efficiency with which information and stimuli can be processed, therefore can subsequently impact the actions, technique and ultimate performance of an individual Anxiety Sport Literature Review, Three recently-published which papers discuss the effect of anxiety on attentional, and from there its effect on performance, are:.
All three papers tested individuals in different, manipulated scenarios to investigate whether changes in perceived anxiety levels would affect the source attentional focus and end performance of their athletes. The first paper will be described and critiqued, before paper two and then paper 3. Discussion and comparison between all three will be offered and conclusions highlighted.
There were 12 participants 7M, 5F all described as climbing novices, with a mean age of Heart rate values were also taken, as these can show anxiety as present even if the individual does not conceive it so Winner, ; Hopkins Medicine, Nieuwenhuys et al found that at greater height, participants took longer to move from beginning to end of the course, made more movements, looked for footholds closer within reach of them, and were looking for longer spells before making their next move, indicating increased anxiety.
This was supported by higher anxiety self-scores, and a raise in heart rate figures. Improvements could be made by repeating a similar study with an increased sample size. For the interests of balance and to have a balanced lack of experience with the course of the climb, half the participants could have gone in the opposite order, ie high-anxiety first, then low.
However this may have made it more difficult to reach — and recover from — the anxious state. Positives of the setup of this study included the gender balance present, and the setup procedures to maintain balance and accuracy. For example, a step ladder was put in place to allow participants to climb more easily to the second condition area, and moreover there was a platform at Anxiety Sport Literature Review top of the stepladder to allow for a rest in order to return to a normal heart rate.
Having a far greater number of footholes 26 than were required 11 Pijpers, Oudejans, Holsheimer and Bakker, allowed anxiety to be truly measured as there was a decreased level of difficulty. Having identical tracks at both heights could help give true results as the difficulty remained constant.
However it could be argued that repeating the same track could make participants more relaxed and less anxious.
Sport Psych Anxiety Part 1
Lastly, the detail of visual analysis, noting the distances of the gazes rather than simply duration and number, was a further positive as it shown how participants were looking more at their hands and handholds closer to them then venturing further, linked to being more anxious. In the low-threat condition, nonevaluative information was given and players were simply asked to score as many shots as possible until they had achieved 10 misses and 10 baskets.
Eye fixations and Quiet Eye Period before shooting and movement phases were captured between the ASL software and a video camera. Performance measurement was based on the percentage free throw success rate. Wilson, Vine and Wood found that participants had significantly higher cognitive anxiety socres in the high-threat condition, and performance decreased by Longer quiet eye time was observed for successful shots in both conditions, Anxiety Sport Literature Review also started earlier.
Shorter quiet eye time was noted in the high-threat condition. These changes followed the success rates of the shots http://agnix.info/edu-help/how-to-write-a-bibliography-page-for-websites.php question. Future research could look at a larger number of participants with an even gender spread.
Monitoring heart rates would also give independent credence to the anxiety scores recorded. Positive features of this study include the fact that participants were regularly asked about their feelings of anxiety, rather than only at the beginning and end. Having some attempt the high-threat stage first offers more balanced results without influence of familiarity or decrease in motivation caused by the repetitive nature of the tasks.
The authors note that their findings suggest training programmes for attentional control could be worthwhile and see more a point of interest for further studies. They also acknowledge that further research is required on the influence of anxiety, particularly relating to other measures of attentional control.
One possible study could see the authors take the same 10 athletes and repeat the testing process over a number of weeks, giving half a training interventionand then reviewing its effect on attention, fixation and performance.
Players were fitted with the same ASL Anxiety Sport Literature Review as in the other two tests. Each participant had 10 familiarisation shots, no goalkeeper present, before being fitted with the software. The MRF-3 was used to chart anxiety, taken after 4 penalty kicks, after the 7th when the conditional instructions were repeated and then after their 10th kick.
Imagery Use in Sport: A Literature Review anxiety SPORT SITUATION Trainmg Imagery and review the scientific literature within the framework that the model. Competitive Anxiety in Sport (Paper) Sport Competition Anxiety Test: Literature Review, Current Status, and Future Directions Chapter 6. Research Using SCAT. Anxiety Research Within Sport Psychology. Print Literature Review. In this study Sport Anxiety Scale (SAS; Smith. Anxiety and sport performance. Article · Literature Review Similar differences have been observed in the test anxiety literature where it has been found that. Within the sport psychology literature, anxiety reducing programs sport performers. The systematic review examined the effectiveness of these interventions in.
Performance was measured by how far away from the centre of the goal, hence more difficult to save, their penalty was, rather than whether or not they scored. Players were simply told to try to score their penalty by aiming at the areas which would give them the best chance of doing so.
In the low-threat condition the authors Anxiety Sport Literature Review the players that the research was concerned not with their performance, but with testing the eye-track equipment. In the high-threat condition, participants were told of a cash prize for the winner, and of a leaderboard which would be sent to each player. Wilson, Wood and Vine found that anxiety was significantly lower in the low-threat condition.
Performance decreased significantly in the high-threat condition, with shots going much more central. Participants fixated a higher number of times, and for longer on the goalkeeper, when in an anxious state. They were also much quicker to look at the goalkeeper. Interestingly, previous research, as noted by the authors, shows anxiety to be the Anxiety Sport Literature Review factor influencing poorer performance for penalties. While this allows for similarity and comparison, it is not reflective of the fact that left-footed players do exist, and are also sought after specifically at times, due to a belief that they are more creative and skillful BRW, ; Whitehouse Address, Repeating the MRF-3 regularly also accounted for any changes in the anxiety of the players during click to see more tests.
As with each of the other studies, social desireability within the answers given could be an issue, regardless of steps being taken to minimise its presence. Overall, each study concluded that an increase in anxiety correlated with a decrease in performance.
Web Development Manager Resume falls in line with what one might expect based on the ACT Theory. All three authors also noted that this has been little work done in this field, and further research should look to Anxiety Sport Literature Review on these findings and dig deeper into different facets, such as adjusting the influence of malleable and independent factors such as opposition players or other people Wilson, Wood and Vine, Moreover, Wilson, Wood and Vine also noted that the validity of relevant training systems would be worth researching.
You are commenting using your WordPress. You are commenting using your Twitter account. You are commenting using your Facebook account. Notify me of new comments via email. My posts… About Coaching Education Psychology. Three recently-published which papers discuss the effect of anxiety on attentional, and from there its effect on performance, are: As with each of the other studies, social desireability Anxiety Sport Literature Review the answers given could be an issue, regardless of steps being taken to minimise its presence Overall, each study concluded that an increase in anxiety correlated with a decrease in performance.
Tagged anxiety attention literature performance Psychology sport. Published August 16, December 6, Leave a Reply Cancel reply Enter your comment here Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Email Address never made public.