English as a second or foreign language is the use of English by speakers with different native languages. English as a foreign language EFL is used for non-native English speakers learning English in a country where English is not commonly spoken. The term ESL has been seen by some to indicate that English would be of secondary importance.
For example, where English is used as a Lingua Franca in a multilingual country. The term ESL can be a misnomer for some students who have learned several languages before learning English.
The way English learners are instructed depends on their level of English proficiency and the program contents provided in their school Esl Literature Review Editing Site Us district. In some programs, instructions are taught in both, English and their home language. In other programs, instructions are given visit web page English, but contextualized in a manner that is comprehensible to the students Wright, Adapting comprehension, insight oriented repetitions and recasts are some of the methods used in training.
However, without proper cultural immersion social learning grounds the associated language habits and reference points internal mechanisms of the host country isn't completely transferred through these programs Wright, To further complicate the syntax of the language is based on Latin grammar hence it suffers inconsistencies.
This is found in a great extent primarily in pronunciation and vocabulary. Variants of English language also exist in both of these countries e. African American Vernacular English. English as a language has great reach and influence; it is taught all over the world. In countries English as a second language training has evolved into two broad directions: These Esl Literature Review Editing Site Us have grown firmer as the instructors of these two "industries" have used different terminologyfollowed distinct training qualifications, formed separate professional associationsand so on.
Crucially, these two arms have very different funding structures, public in the former and private in the latter, and to some extent this influences the way schools are established and classes are held. Although English is the principal language in both the US and the United Kingdom, it differs between the two countries from their parent anglo-saxon roots.
For example, some words and phrases that are inoffensive in the US are offensive in the UK and vice versa. Even if this language share Caucasian homogeneity there exists stark differences in the literary world. Some examples that showcases this differences are: Similarly, Bertrand Russell said: The many acronyms and abbreviations used in the field of English teaching and learning may be confusing and the following technical definitions may have their currency contested upon various grounds.
These terms are most commonly used in relation to teaching and learning English as a second languagebut they may also be used in relation to demographic information. English language teaching ELT is a widely used teacher-centered term, as in the English language teaching divisions of large publishing houses, ELT training, etc. EFLEnglish as a foreign language, indicates the go here of English in a non—English-speaking region.
Study can occur either in the student's home country, as part of the normal school curriculum or otherwise, or, for the more privileged minority, in an anglophone country that they visit as a sort of educational tourist, particularly immediately before or after graduating from university.
TEFL is the teaching Esl Literature Review Editing Site Us English as a foreign language ; note that this sort of instruction can take place in any country, English-speaking or not.
Typically, EFL is learned either to pass exams as a necessary part of one's education, or for career progression while one works for an organization or business with an international focus. EFL may be part of the state school curriculum in countries where English has no special status what linguistic theorist Braj Kachru calls source "expanding circle countries" ; it may also be supplemented by lessons paid for privately.
Teachers of EFL generally assume that students are literate in their mother tongue. The other broad grouping is the use of English within the English-speaking world. In what Braj Kachru calls "the inner circle", i. It also includes the use of English in "outer circle" countries, often former British colonies and the Philippineswhere English is an official language even if it is not spoken as a mother tongue by a majority of the population.
This term has been criticized on the grounds that many learners already speak more than one language. A counter-argument says that the word "a" in the phrase "a second language" means there is no presumption that English is the second acquired language see also Second language.
TESL read more the teaching of English as a second language.
There are also other terms that it may be referred to in the US including: In these countries TESOL teaching English to speakers of other languages is normally used to refer to teaching English only to this group. In the UK and Ireland, the term EAL English as an additional language is used, rather than ESOL, when talking about primary and secondary schools, in order to clarify that English is not the students' first language, just click for source their second or third.
Other acronyms were created to describe the person rather than the language to be learned. ELL English Language Learnerused by United States governments and school systems, was created by James Crawford of the Institute for Language and Education Policy in an effort to label Esl Literature Review Editing Site Us positively, rather than ascribing a deficiency to them.
Recently, some educators have shortened this to EL — English Learner. Typically, a student learns this sort of English to function in the new host country, e. The teaching Esl Literature Review Editing Site Us it does not presuppose literacy in the mother tongue. It is usually paid for by the host government to help newcomers settle into their adopted country, sometimes as part of an explicit citizenship program.
It is technically possible for ESL to be taught not in the host country, but in, for example, a refugee camp, as part of a pre-departure program sponsored by the government soon to receive new potential citizens. In practice, however, this is extremely rare.
The term refers to the use of standard English by speakers of a creole or non-standard variety. All these ways of denoting the teaching of English can be bundled together into an umbrella term.
Unfortunately, not all of the English teachers in the world would agree on just only a simply single term s. This is also the case in Canada as well as in Australia and New Zealand. Several click of "simplified English" have been suggested or developed for international communication, among them:.
Language teaching practice often assumes that most of the difficulties that learners face in the study of English are a consequence of the degree to which their native language differs from English a contrastive analysis approach. A native speaker of Chinesefor example, may face many more difficulties than a native speaker of Germanbecause German is more closely related to English than Chinese. This may be true for anyone of any mother tongue also called first language, normally abbreviated L1 setting out to learn any other language called a target languagesecond language or L2.
See also second language acquisition Article source for mixed evidence from linguistic research. Language learners often produce errors of syntaxvocabularyand pronunciation thought to result from the influence of their L1, such as mapping its grammatical patterns inappropriately onto the L2, pronouncing certain sounds incorrectly or with difficulty, and confusing items of vocabulary known as false friends.
This is known as L1 transfer or "language interference". However, these transfer effects are typically stronger for beginners' language production, and SLA research has highlighted many errors which cannot be attributed to the L1, Esl Literature Review Editing Site Us they are attested in learners of many language backgrounds for example, failure to apply 3rd person present singular -s to verbs, as in 'he make' not 'he make s'.
Some students may have problems due to the incoherence in rules like were, a noun is a noun and a verb is a verb because grammarians say they are. In "I am suffering terribly" suffering is the verb, but in "My suffering is terrible", it is a noun. But both sentences expresses the same idea using the same words.
Other students might have problems due to the prescribing and proscribing nature of rules click at this page the language formulated by amateur grammarians rather than ascribing to the functional and descriptive nature of languages evidenced from distribution.
For example a cleric, Robert Lowth introduced the rule to never end a sentence with a preposition, inspired from Latin grammar through his book "A Short Introduction to English Grammar". Cultural differences in communication styles and preferences are also significant. For example, a study among Chinese ESL students revealed that preference of not using tense marking on verb present in the morphology of their mother tongue made it difficult for them to express time related sentences in English.
English contains a number of sounds and sound distinctions not present in some other languages. Speakers of languages without these sounds may have problems both with hearing and with pronouncing them.
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Languages may also differ in syllable structure ; English allows for a cluster of up to three consonants before the vowel and five after it e. Japanese and Brazilian Portuguesefor example, broadly alternate consonant and vowel sounds so learners from Japan just click for source Brazil often force vowels between the consonants e.
Similarly, Esl Literature Review Editing Site Us most Iberian dialects, a word can begin with [s]and [s] can be followed by a consonant, but a word can never begin with [s] immediately followed by a consonant, so learners whose mother tongue is in this language family often have a vowel in front of the word e.
Learners who have had less than eight years of formal education in their first language are sometimes called adult ESL literacy learners.
Usually these learners have had their first-language education interrupted. For example, these learners may lack study skills and transferable language skills,   and these learners may avoid reading or writing. Learners who have not had extensive exposure to reading and writing in a second language, despite having acceptable spoken proficiency, may have difficulties with the reading and writing in their L2. Joann Crandall  has pointed out that most teacher training programs for TESOL instructors do not include sufficient, in most cases "no", training for the instruction in literacy.
This is a gap that many scholars feel needs to be addressed. These language skills usually develop within six months to two years.
These skills usually take from five to seven years to develop. According to some English professionals, reading for pleasure is an important component in the teaching of both native and foreign languages: As with most languages, written language tends to use a more formal register than spoken language.
There is also debate about "meaning-focused" learning and "correction-focused" learning. Supporters for the former think that using speech as the way to explain meaning is more important.
However, supporters of the latter do not agree with that and instead think that grammar and correct habit is more important. Language has a very significant role in our lives.
The Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue University houses writing resources and instructional material, and we provide these as a free service of the Writing Lab at. Resources for ESL Teachers. Everything you need to be a successful English as a Second Language teacher for students of all ages and skill levels. English as a second or foreign language is the use of English by speakers with different native languages. Instruction for English-language learners may be known as. To create an effective learning environment for your ESL students, you first need to establish classroom management. This lesson covers techniques. The Purdue University Online Writing Lab serves writers from around the world and the Purdue University Writing Lab helps writers on Purdue's campus.
It symbolizes the cultures in our societies where individuals interact and use it to communicate between each other. The development of transportation has influenced global relations to be more practical where people need to interact and share common interests. However, communication is the key power to facilitate interactions among individuals which would provide them with stronger relationships.
In places like the United States where immigration plays a role in social, economic and cultural aspects, there is an increase in the number of new immigrants yearly. Although many non-English speakers tend to practice English classes in their countries before they migrate to any anglophone country to make it easier for them to interact with the people, many of them still struggle when they experience the reality of communicating with a real anglophone.
Therefore, society forces them to improve their communication skills as soon as possible. Immigrants cannot afford to waste time learning to speak English especially click at this page those who come with certain financial issues.
The Esl Literature Review Editing Site Us common choice people make to build up their communication skills is to take some ESL classes. There are many steps that need to be followed in order Esl Literature Review Editing Site Us be successful in this aspect.
However, the use of new technology makes the learning process more convenient, reliable and productive. Computers have made an entry into education in the past decades and have brought significant benefits to teachers and students alike. Studies have shown that one of the best ways of improving one's learning ability is to use a computer where all the information one might need can be found.