Traditionally, spirituality refers to a religious process of re-formation which "aims to recover the original shape of man," oriented at "the image of God" as exemplified by the founders and sacred texts of the religions of the world.
In modern times the emphasis is on subjective experience of a sacred dimension  and the "deepest values and meanings by which people live,"   often in a context separate from organized religious institutions. The meaning of spirituality has developed and expanded over time, and various connotations can be found alongside each other.
The term spirit means "animating or vital principle in man and animals". The term "spiritual", matters "concerning the spirit", [web 2] is derived from Old French spirituel 12c. There is no single, widely agreed definition of spirituality. Indeed, many of spirituality's core features are not unique to spirituality alone; for example German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer a famous atheist regarded self- transcendenceasceticism and the recognition of one's connection to all as a key to ethical living see.
According to Kees Waaijman, the traditional meaning of spirituality is a process of re-formation which "aims to recover the original shape of man, the image of God. To accomplish this, the re-formation is oriented at a mold, which represents the original shape: Spirituality is sometimes associated with philosophical, social, or Essays On Spiritual Health movements such as liberalismfeminist theologyand green politics.
Words translatable as 'spirituality' first began to arise in the 5th century and only entered common use toward the end of the Middle Ages. In the 11th century this meaning changed. Spirituality began to denote the mental aspect of life, as opposed to the material and sensual aspects of life, "the ecclesiastical sphere of light against Essays On Spiritual Health dark world of matter".
Socially it denoted the territory of the clergy: In the 17th and 18th century a distinction was made between Essays On Spiritual Health and lower forms of spirituality: Modern notions of spirituality developed throughout the 19th and 20th century, mixing Click ideas with westen esoteric traditions and elements of Asian, especially Indian, religions.
Spirituality became increasingly disconnected from traditional religious organisations and institutions. Ralph Waldo Emerson — was a pioneer of the idea of spirituality as a distinct field. A major influence on modern spirituality was the Theosophical Societywhich searched for 'secret teachings' in Asian religions. The influence of Asian traditions on western modern Essays On Spiritual Health was also furthered by the Perennial Philosophywhose main proponent Aldous Huxley was deeply influenced by Swami Vivekananda's Neo-Vedanta and Universalism and the spread of social welfare, education and mass travel after World War Two.
An important influence on western spirituality was Neo-Vedantaalso called neo-Hinduism  and Hindu Universalism[web 7] a modern interpretation of Hinduism which developed in response to western colonialism and orientalism. It aims to present Hinduism as a "homogenized ideal of Hinduism"  with Advaita Vedanta as its central doctrine. Roy attempted to modernise and reform Hinduism, from the idea of Universalism. After the Second World War, spirituality and theistic religion became increasingly disconnected,  and spirituality became more oriented on subjective experience, instead of "attempts to place the self within a broader ontological context.
The distinction between the spiritual and the religious became more common in the popular mind during the late 20th century with the rise of secularism and the advent of the New Age movement. Paul Heelas noted the development within New Age circles of what he called "seminar spirituality": Among other factors, declining membership Essays On Spiritual Health organized religions and the growth of secularism in the western world have given rise to this broader view of spirituality.
The term "spiritual" is now frequently used in contexts in which the term "religious" was formerly employed. Rabbinic Judaism or in some Christian traditions, Rabbinism Hebrew: It is characterised by the belief that the Written Torah "Law" or "Instruction" cannot be correctly interpreted without reference to the Oral Torah and by the voluminous literature specifying what behavior Essays On Spiritual Health sanctioned by the law called halakha"the way".
Judaism knows a variety of religious observances: Kabbalah literally "receiving"is an esoteric method, discipline and school of thought of Judaism.
Free spiritual journey papers, essays, and research papers. Free Nursing papers, essays, and research papers. These results are sorted by most relevant first (ranked search). You may also sort these by color rating or. BAPS Shri Swaminarayan Sanstha Sushrut compiled the knowledge and teachings of his guru Divodas Dhanvantari, King of Kashi, in the Sushrut Samhita. New/updated essays in recent months. Why this web site is different. Planned future essays. Why so many essays on sexual topics? The following topics are discussed. Browse and subscribe to RSS feeds of Harvard University Press titles by subject, library, publishing partner, or series, and see a list of featured books and collections.
Its definition varies according to the tradition and aims of those following it,  from its religious origin as an integral part of Judaismto its later ChristianNew Ageor Occultist syncretic adaptations. Kabbalah is a set of esoteric teachings meant to explain the relationship between an unchanging, eternal and mysterious Ein Sof no end and the mortal and finite universe his creation.
While it is heavily used by some denominations, it is not a religious denomination in itself. Inside Judaism, it forms the foundations of Top Term Paper Editor Sites religious interpretation.
Outside Judaism, its scriptures are read outside the traditional canons Essays On Spiritual Health organised religion. Kabbalah seeks to define the nature of the universe and the human being, the nature and purpose of existence, and various other ontological questions. It also presents methods to aid understanding of these concepts and to thereby attain spiritual realisation. Hasidic Judaismmeaning "piety" or " loving kindness "is a branch of Orthodox Judaism that promotes spirituality through the popularisation and internalisation of Jewish mysticism as the fundamental aspect of the faith.
His example began the characteristic veneration of leadership in Hasidism as embodiments and intercessors of Divinity for the followers. The emphasis on the Immanent Divine presence in everything gave new value to prayer and deeds of kindness, alongside Rabbinic supremacy of study Essays On Spiritual Health, and replaced historical mystical kabbalistic and ethical musar asceticism and admonishment with optimism, [ citation needed ] encouragement, and daily fervour.
This populist emotional revival accompanied the elite ideal of nullification to paradoxical Divine Panentheismthrough intellectual articulation of inner dimensions of mystical thought.
Catholic spirituality is the spiritual practice of living out a personal act of faith fides qua creditur following the acceptance of faith fides quae creditur.
Although all Catholics are expected to pray together at Massthere are many different forms of spirituality and private prayer which have developed over the centuries.
Each of the major religious orders of the Catholic Church and other lay groupings have their own unique spirituality - its own way of approaching God in prayer and in living out the Gospel. Christian mysticism refers to the development of mystical practices and theory within Christianity.
It has often been connected to mystical theologyespecially in the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox traditions. The attributes and means by which Christian mysticism is studied and practiced are varied and range from ecstatic visions of the soul's mystical union with God to simple prayerful contemplation of Holy Scripture i.
Progressive Christianity is a contemporary movement which seeks to remove the supernatural claims of the faith and replace them with a post-critical understanding of biblical spirituality based on continue reading Essays On Spiritual Health scientific research.
It focuses on the lived experience of spirituality over historical dogmatic claims, and accepts that the faith click to see more both Essays On Spiritual Health and a human construction, and that spiritual experiences are psychologically and neurally real and useful. The Pillars of Islam arkan al-Islam ; also arkan ad-din"pillars of religion" are five basic acts in Islam, considered obligatory for all believers.
The Quran presents them as a framework for worship and a sign of commitment to the faith. They are 1 the shahadah creed2 daily prayers salat3 almsgiving zakah4 fasting during Ramadan and 5 the pilgrimage to Mecca hajj at least once in a lifetime. The Shia and Sunni sects both agree on the essential details for the performance of these acts.
The best known form of Islamic mystic spirituality is the Sufi tradition famous through Rumi and Hafiz in which a spiritual master or pir transmits spiritual discipline to students. Sufis believe they are practicing ihsan perfection of worship as revealed by Gabriel to Muhammad.
Worship and serve Allah as you are seeing Him and while you see Him not yet truly He sees you. Sufis consider themselves as go here original true proponents of this pure original form of Islam.
They are strong adherents to the principal of tolerance, peace and against any form of violence. The Sufi have suffered severe persecution by more rigid and fundamentalist groups such as the Wahhabi and Salafi movement. Classical Sufi scholars have defined Sufism as "a science whose objective is the reparation of the heart and turning it away from all else but Essays On Spiritual Health.
What is Spiritual Health?
Jihad is a religious duty of Muslims. There are two commonly accepted meanings of jihad: Buddhist practices are known as Bhavanawhich literally means "development" or "cultivating"  or "producing"   in the sense of "calling into existence. When used on its own bhavana signifies 'spiritual cultivation' generally.
Various Buddhist Paths to liberation developed throughout the ages. Hinduism has no traditional ecclesiastical order, no centralized Essays On Spiritual Health authorities, no governing body, no prophet s nor any binding holy book; Hindus can choose to be polytheistic, pantheistic, monistic, or atheistic.
It Essays On Spiritual Health spiritual practice as one's journey towards mokshaawareness of self, the discovery of higher truths, true nature of reality, and a consciousness that is liberated and content. There is a rigorous debate in Indian literature on relative merits of these theoretical spiritual practices.
For example, Chandogyopanishad suggests that those who engage in ritualistic offerings to gods and priests will fail in their spiritual practice, while those who engage in tapas will succeed; Svetasvataropanishad suggests that a successful spiritual practice requires a longing for truth, but warns of becoming 'false ascetic' who go through the mechanics of spiritual practice without meditating on the nature of Self and universal Truths.
These four paths of spirituality are also known in Hinduism outside India, such as in Balinese Hinduism Essays On Spiritual Health, where it is called Catur Marga literally: Different schools of Hinduism encourage different spiritual practices. It involves initiation into the school, undergoing rituals, and achieving moksha liberation by experiencing union of cosmic polarities. Sikhism considers spiritual life and secular life to be intertwined: According to Guru Nanakthe just click for source is to attain the "attendant balance of separation-fusion, self-other, action-inaction, attachment-detachment, in the course of daily life",  the polar opposite to a self-centered existence.
In Sikhism there is no dogma priestsmonastics or yogis. In some African contexts, spirituality is considered a belief system that guides the welfare article source society and the people therein, and eradicates sources link unhappiness occasioned by evil.
New Age in a restricted sense, which originated primarily in mid-twentieth century England and had its roots in Theosophy and Anthroposophyand "New Age" in a general sense, which emerged in the later s. Those who speak of spirituality outside of religion often define themselves as spiritual but not religious and generally believe in the existence of different "spiritual paths," emphasizing the importance of finding one's own individual path to spirituality.
Modern spirituality is centered on the "deepest values and meanings by which people live. Not all modern notions of spirituality embrace transcendental ideas. Secular spirituality emphasizes humanistic ideas on moral character qualities such as love, compassionpatience, tolerance, forgiveness, contentment, responsibility, harmony, and a concern for others.
Nevertheless, many humanists e. Bertrand RussellJean-Paul Sartre who clearly value the non-material, communal and virtuous aspects of life reject this usage of the term spirituality as being overly-broad i. Although personal well-being, both physical and psychologicalis said to be an important aspect of modern spirituality, this does not imply spirituality is essential to achieving happiness e.
Contemporary spirituality theorists assert that spirituality develops inner peace and forms a foundation for happiness. Yet such spiritually-informed treatment approaches have been challenged as pseudoscienceare far from uniformly curative and may for non-believers cause harm see iatrogenesis.
James' notions of "spiritual experience" had a further influence on the modernist streams in Asian traditions, making them even further recognisable for a western audience. William James popularized the use of the term "religious experience" in his The Varieties of Religious Experience. Wayne Proudfoot traces the roots of the notion of "religious experience" further back to the German theologian Friedrich Schleiermacher —who argued that religion is based on a feeling of the infinite.
The notion of "religious experience" was used by Schleiermacher to defend religion against the growing scientific and secular critique. It was adopted by many scholars of religion, of which William James was the most influential.
Major Asian influences were Vivekananda  and D. Suzuki had a major influence on the popularisation of Zen in the west and popularized the idea of enlightenment as insight into a timeless, transcendent reality. Spiritual experiences can include being connected to a larger reality, yielding a more comprehensive self ; joining with other individuals or the human community ; with nature or the cosmos ; or with the divine realm. Waaijman discerns four forms of spiritual practices: Spiritual practices may include meditationmindfulnessprayerthe contemplation of sacred textsethical development,  and the use of psychoactive substances entheogens.
Within spirituality is also found "a common emphasis on the value of thoughtfulness, tolerance Essays On Spiritual Health breadth and practices and beliefs, and appreciation for the insights of other religious communities, as well as other sources of authority within the social sciences.