Life has finally started to slow down a bit for me and i am glad to introduce yet another totally new class to the Botany Every Day fold.
Our world is increasingly subject to all sorts of pollution. It makes sense that even fewer plants have been tested in regards to dealing with toxins.
All i could dig up in a semester of graduate school is below. Very humbling to delve into such a technical realm. Would love to know more Help Me Write Botany Literature Review the threat from foraging or community gardening in polluted urban environments in particular.
Below is a quick summary of my recent botanical activities. Feel free to skip ahead if you want to get right to remediation. The leaves are gone here and the cold has begun to set in. That being said we have still had some beautiful clear 60 degree days lately and many Brassica greens as still growing. Lots of brewing activity lately. This mead was crafted basically from left over Lamiaceae tea with a good bit of Tulsi and added honey.
For me, i will be brewing definitely but other activity is still unknown. These folks make my favorite kombucha ever and have many other novel flavors and ingredients.
Next weekend Robert Eidus and the North Carolina Natural Products association Help Me Write Botany Literature Review leading up an international Ginseng exposition coming to the Asheville area www. The breakfast menu is below just as a sample of how we roll. A vegetarian version minus sausage will be available as well. Phytoremediation entails the use of plants to mitigate the effects of some type of environmental toxin or damage.
It may be used to remove contaminants from soil, toxins from air or simply re-vegetate and stabilize a disturbed area. In the process, phytoremediation may offer a suite of benefits familiar to those who work with plants including carbon sequestration, increased water quality, aesthetic value, food for wildlife, craft material etc.
Below i treat a number of different areas regarding how plants have been employed for phytoremediation in Appalachia in particular in regards to coal.
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However, Much of this information can be extrapolated to other temperate areas where mining occurs. A study of plants that improve indoor air quality follows of which everyone can obviously benefit from. The main cause for phytoremediation in Appalachia is the effect of coal mining. Coal mining in Appalachia is a very controversial and complex issue.
The effect of coal mining on society Help Me Write Botany Literature Review the economy of Appalachia have been studied in depth Eller, ; Erikson, ; Fisher, ; Shifflett, The effects on the environment are also present in the books mentioned above. However, a separate literature deals with the mitigation of environmental damage to areas once they have been mined.
Initially mining consisted of digging tunnels and a lot of manual labor. Over time methods employing machines were developed for strip mining. Much of the Appalachian phytoremediation literature addresses the strip mining method.
Currently workers for coal companies practice mountain top removal MTR. No amount of planting will bring buried streams back.
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Plants can however help prevent erosion, offer food for wildlife, and possibly mitigate toxic chemicals. Over MTR sites have already been developed to date and need to me remediated in whatever ways possible Voices, Control of water sources, proper fertility, negation of acidic conditions sometimes caused by mine spoil and proper grading are all part of effective revegetation.
A relatively short list of plants has been developed for the task of phytoremediation. Typically revegetation uses a combination of woody species and grasses. Plants that have the ability to fix nitrogen and or low nutrient needs are at a distinct advantage. Plant tolerance to heavy metals which are often at mine sites is also helpful. Fast growth is ideal and part of the reason for selection of early succession species which typically exhibit such a pattern.
Proper pH is even more important for herbaceous plants.
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Plants that have been employed and are useful in parts of Appalachia include: Many of these plants are introduced to the U. Proper care is required. Some of these plants are also used for hay and forage. One study has shown that hay may be more viable than pasture. However, hay also cost more to establish than trees Baker, A bibliography that has been developed for the production of forages on reclaimed surface mine lands may offer more insight G.
The role of phytoremediation for coal areas has a special significance for Appalachia. Native plants are preferred to exotics due to the potential for escape by introduced species. Prevalent phytoremediation families may be analyzed to provide a ready pool of possible detoxifying plants. His plan may lead to a more robust treatment of coal mine remediation than has historically been practiced.
Phytoremediation for Heavy Metals in Soil. Soil click the following article has only been developed in the last 30 years Lasat. The sources of these toxins include metal working, coal Help Me Write Botany Literature Review, sewage sludge, pesticides, and fertilizers.
Practitioners of phytoremediation have recently also turned to dealing with organic solvents such as Trichloroethylene, Polychlorinated Biphenyls, and various products of war.
Other methods for remediation include excavation, soil washing, thermal treatment, electro-reclamation, chemical, and other biological techniques.
However, all of these tend to be more expensive than phytoremediation. Heavy metals may take several forms. Methyl mercury is the most dangerous form of Hg and is typically created in an anaerobic environment such as the bottom of water bodies.
It may then enter the food chain and bioaccumulate through fish. Lead is one of the most worrisome metals and it can be ingested through inhalation or ingestion. Lead can cause a vast array of neurological disorders especially in children. However, Zinc and Cadmium tend to be more bioavailable in soil than lead Lasat, n. Soil additives such as synthetic chelates are sometimes used in concert with plants to enhance uptake of Pb in particular Henry, Some additives are Help Me Write Botany Literature Review to simply complex and stabilize pollutants in place.
Additives include agents that change pH such as liming agents or acidifiers. A hyperacculmulator is a plant species capable of accumulating times more metal than a typical plant Henry, Hyperaccumulators for Hg have not yet been found Henry, Plant family trends may elucidate patterns in hyperaccumulation.
Research shows that the mustard Brassicaceae and carnation Caryophyllaceae families contain many obligate metallophytes but are usually nonmycorrhizal Colpaert, Poinsettia Euphorbiaceae and Snapdragon Scrophulariaceae families have also been shown to accumulate metals Henry, Metallophytes in the subtropical and tropical parts of the world often belong to Bean FabaceaeMint LamiaceaeSunflower Asteraceae and Grass Poaceae families Colpaert, Most plants that hyperaccumulate metals have been identified for other areas than the U.
Brooks, b Relevant genera to the U.
Ultramafic soils of which Appalachia has some, represent one place on which such plants are typically found. Therefore, potential may exist to discover some indigenous Appalachian hyperaccumulators. Such soils are rare in Appalachia and the plants represented from such places would need to be bred and propagated in order to be applied for use.
Plant breeding has been pursued to increase the efficacy of phytoremediation.
Summary of the literature review
Research has also been conducted on using transgenic plants for removal of mercury Henry, ; Lasat, n. Some plants are naturally tolerant to metalliferous soils. Within these species intra-specific tolerance can vary greatly. Plants also vary in their transport of metals from root to shoot which may be an issue with grazing animals.
Plants that deposit metals in their foliage can act as a vector of toxic exposure for wildlife and even ultimately people. Certain mycorrhizal relationships may also serve to sequester metals in the root zone rather than the foliage Colpaert, Recently, the role of fungal relations in overall phytoremediation has been recently championed even further Stamets, Mycorrhizal relationships also play an important role in the tolerance of plants for metals and the potential for remediation.
Arbuscular mycorrhizal AM fungi in particular seem to colonize a number of different metalophyte plants across a range of plant families Colpaert, Crown vetch Coronilla varia plants Help Me Write Botany Literature Review were colonizing anthracite wastelands in Pennsylvania were click to see more colonized with AM fungi Colpaert, Actinorhizal plants such as Alder Alnus spp.
Some plants show tolerances to several different heavy metal types while others are more specific. Within the database species in 76 families are included.
Most plants show accumulation, tolerance or hyperaccumulation of only one metal. Water plants show the largest ability to accumulate Help Me Write Botany Literature Review metals. Many have escaped cultivation and are now terrible problems all over the world. Several edible plants have been shown to accumulate metals.