Massive open online courses MOOCs are a recent addition to the range of online learning options.
Many academics have taken interest in MOOCs recognising the potential to deliver education around the globe on an unprecedented scale; some of these academics are taking a research-oriented perspective and academic papers describing their research are starting to appear in the traditional media of peer reviewed publications.
This paper presents a systematic review of the published MOOC literature Forty-five peer reviewed papers are identified through journals, database searches, searching the Web, and chaining from known sources to form the base for this review.
We believe this is the first effort to systematically review literature relating to MOOCs, a fairly recent Literature Review On Engagement massively popular phenomenon with a global reach. The review categorises the literature into eight different areas of interest, introductory, concept, case studies, educational theory, technology, participant focussed, provider focussed, and other, while also providing quantitative analysis of publications according to publication type, year of publication, and contributors.
Future research directions guided by gaps in the literature are explored. MOOC; massive open online course; massively open online course; systematic review; connectivism. Further developments of distance education have appeared with each new communication technology: The latest development, click to see more of the Internet including very recently the mobile Internethas similarly been adopted by many existing higher education providers but has also supported the emergence of a new model dubbed a massive open online course Literature Review On Engagement sthe term coined in to describe an open online course to be offered by the University of Manitoba in Canada.
Search techniques for papers related to MOOCs are considered and a corpus of papers identified, then a grounded research approach is presented from which a classification of the works emerges. In the Massachusetts Institute of Technology MIT launched its pioneering OpenCourseWare OCWwith the aim of publishing materials from all its courses permanently on the open Web, with licenses allowing its use, modification, and redistribution.
OER were made available for two purposes: Learners could access the material directly and, hopefully, Literature Review On Engagement from it; educators could use the material as part of their own teaching as produced or by amending it themselves. A significant proportion of these OER, however, were of limited use since they were usually produced in order to be a specific part of a larger educational experience within a specific educational framework.
This limitation was particularly frustrating for many aspiring learners attempting to use them directly, but Literature Review On Engagement also cause problems when used naively by educators Liyanagunawardena, ; Weller, The concept of open access to learning was taken in a different direction with the introduction of the massive open online courses or MOOCs Fini, Connectivity is usually provided through social networking, and a set of freely accessible online resources provides the content or the study material.
agnix.info CIRCLE Working Paper May 2 College Students Talk Politics: Revisiting and Reviewing the Literature agnix.info 3. According to Stipek (), early approaches to the study of motivation were rooted in the literature on extrinsic reinforcement. Within this literature, all behavior. VALUE-BASED PURCHASING: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Vittorio Maio, Neil I. Goldfarb, Chureen Carter, and David B. Nash Jefferson Medical College. TLRPIII: Learning in and for interagency working Interagency Collaboration: a review of the literature Paul Warmington, Harry Daniels, Anne Edwards, Steve Brown.
Participation in a MOOC is completely Literature Review On Engagement and is dependent on the interested individual. The collaborative space of a MOOC can span across many different platforms and technologies.
This online course had 25 paid enrolments for credit with around 2, non-credit, non-fee paying students. It used the principles of connectivism Siemens, and unlike the traditional form of online learning was not primarily relying on resources posted through a learning management system LMS 1.
More recently MOOCs have developed within international co-operative partnerships such as Coursera www. Likewise there are many blog posts relating to MOOCs, posted from a variety of viewpoints including course leaders, participants, and outsiders for example http: Academic papers on MOOCs began to appear in the peer reviewed literature such as journals, conference proceedings, and professional magazines in Downes,with an increasing number of papers appearing each year since.
This phenomenon is similar to many other technologies that created interest in academic communities. Methods include searching in databases or search engines and chaining from known research papers.
For a systematic review it is important that the methods of identifying papers are described and justified, and that the approach can be re-applied by others Fink, The aim of this study was to locate and analyse MOOC related academic literature to provide an understanding of developing research areas, methods applied in research, and topics lacking published research.
Papers were classed as relevant if their primary focus was Literature Review On Engagement explore the concept of a MOOC or the implications for higher education, report on experiments with MOOCs, or compare MOOCs with other educational approaches. There was insufficient statistical data across the papers found to undertake a meta-analysis Fink Firstly, the search terms and boundaries to be used were established. Initially two search terms and their plurals were selected:.
The search period was limited to the period from the year in which the first MOOC was run to the year this study started Where possible the search was limited to titles and abstracts to reduce the Literature Review On Engagement of manual filtering of irrelevant papers.
Secondly, following the approach of Gao, et al. The please click for source returned a small number of papers in one of these journals, but on detailed examination none of these were relevant for this systematic review.
For example Roderick was predominantly about connected learning in digital spaces, and massively multiplayer online role-playing games were discussed as an example of connectivity. We believe that even though the search terms were used within inverted commas as phrases, the search algorithm may have returned articles such as this by comparing single search terms. Thirdly, the same search terms were then used to search various academic databases: Fourthly, the same search was Literature Review On Engagement using link Google Scholar search engine with 94 results November 21, From these results only 33 were found to be relevant.
For example, the first result returned by the search done on the 21st November was the article by Fini ; but the recent search that returned only 25 results did not contain this article.
Presentations and papers that did not discuss MOOCs as the primary concern of the paper were discounted after a careful reading of the abstract. In order to improve the coverage of relevant publications to be included in this review, the chaining technique of Gao, et al. This resulted in the addition of one more article to the corpus. Google Scholar searches were also performed for each of the articles in the corpus to identify other articles that had referenced them forward referencing.
This resulted in the addition of one more conference paper. During December two additional papers were identified: The data collection process resulted in the identification of 45 distinct articles — 17 from journals, 13 conference publications including one poster conference presentation10 academic magazine articles, 3 reports, and 2 workshop presentations.
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Articles were classified both quantitatively and qualitatively. The quantitative analysis was used to classify the papers according to the publication year and the type of publication in which the article appeared.
Papers were qualitatively classified using open coded content analysis, a technique used by the two studies of literature relating to Twitter Gao, et al. Initially the first author read each of the papers to identify themes, types of inquiry employed, and the future research directions indicated.
These classifications were refined in an iterative manner by all authors reading and re-reading articles, and considering alternative classifications and stratifications. The first MOOC related paper was published inwith again just one paper identified inseven papers in10 inand 26 in Clearly an increasing pattern in the number of articles published on MOOCs can be seen from Figure 1.
The majority of identified articles published to date are in journals 17 paperswith a smaller number of articles appearing in conference proceedings and magazines 13 and 10 respectively.
Engaging with literature across the thesis
Figure 2 diagrammatically presents the percentage of papers in each type of publication. Figure 3 illustrates the separation of articles by publication type and year. From to there is a gradual increase of the number of journal articles and conference papers. It is noticeable that the first magazine article about MOOCs appeared in and the following year there is a fourfold increase, reflecting the recent general interest in MOOCs.
Communications of the ACM published the highest number of magazine articles three while eLearn Magazine and Learning Solutions magazine published two articles each.
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A list of authors with more than one article being reviewed here are presented in Table 3. Kop has the highest number of publications five in the review while deWaard, Hogue, Koutropoulos, and Rodriguez have four each. It can be seen that the authors with more than three publications have worked in teams and several such teams can be identified from co-authorship, for example Kop and Fournier; de Waard, Abajian, Gallagher, Hogue, Keskin, Koutropoulos and Rodriguez; Mackness, Mak, Literature Review On Engagement Williams.
The articles embraced a wide-range of themes relating to MOOCs; an initial list included Most papers included some introduction to the term MOOC and a history of the concept. The majority of articles were primarily concerned with the concept of MOOCs, discussing challenges and trends, while other themes generally appeared within only one paper except for the concept of connectivism and its implications. The themes were re-stratified into the following categories.
The articles were then individually re-considered and assigned to the categories which reflected the contents; many articles were assigned to more than one category. Table 4 shows the spread of these categories. Across the articles classified, 21 had a case study element, and in total 13 different MOOCs were studied. Table 5 shows Literature Review On Engagement number of articles studying each MOOC and the number of articles studying each as the single central case study.
MobiMOOC is the only other course to be considered in more than one paper. The majority of case studies have used multiple methods for data collection in line with the general practice of case study research Yin, In most case studies online surveys were used to collect data from participants in the MOOC s.
Four studies considering PLENK as a case used multiple surveys active participant survey, lurker survey, and end course survey.
Researchers also reported collecting data via email interviews, focus groups, Moodle log data, discussion forum data, blogs, and observations. Three articles reported the use of techniques based on virtual ethnography and another article source narrative inquiry as their research approach.
In two of these instances the researcher was described as a learner in the MOOC, in another two as a participant, and in the remaining three as an observer. The demarcation if one really exists between a learner and a participant in a MOOC is not clear, and may well simply be a matter of differing nomenclature.
The majority of the participants in the case study research were people who had participated in the MOOC under consideration. Two articles also included data collected from instructors. Rodriguez classifies MOOCs into two categories: He associates courses similar to AI-Stanford predominantly with cognitive-behaviourist approaches and c-MOOCs with connectivist approaches. Literature Review On Engagement comparing multiple case studies Rodriguez claims that courses similar to Literature Review On Engagement have a more individualist Literature Review On Engagement approach while c-MOOCs have a more social approach to learning.
He also shows the different roles played by facilitators in each type of MOOC. It is probable that both Rodriguez and Daniel are similarly classifying MOOCs but using the two different labels for the same thing: However, our systematic review has shown that there is a gap in the scholarly literature in defining these different types of MOOCs.
The aim of this study is to develop a classification of academic research relating to MOOCs, based on a systematic consideration of the existing peer reviewed MOOC literature. Other materials such as blog posts and unpublished reports are not included in this review. Blog posts always present link for authors of reviews in determining the credibility of the posts: It should be noted that the same search terms applied above used in Google Web search returned Literature Review On Engagement 50, items and used in a Google Blog search resulted in results December 04,however these items are not analysed here.
Daniel includes references to such resources. Inclusion of such resources in a systematic review is contentious as they are often highly subjective and have rarely been critically reviewed by peers. The question of whether such resources should be included in a systematic review needs further methodological consideration in the literature, but at present it is unusual due to issues of credibility.
Articles published in languages other than English were not considered for this review. When searching forward references using Google Scholar, the authors came across publications that referenced articles in the review but were published in other languages such as Chinese.