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link In the prologue to Book IX, Milton says that his work must now take a tragic tone and that this Christian epic, though different, is nonetheless more heroic than earlier epics like the Iliad and the Aeneid.
Again, he calls on Urania as the muse of Christian inspiration to help him complete his work and show the true heroism that lies in the Christian idea of sacrifice. Then Milton returns to his story.
Satan returns to Eden eight days after being forced out by Gabriel. He has studied all the animals and has decided to approach Eve in the form of a serpent which he considers to be the "subtlest Beast of all the Field" The following morning, Adam and Eve prepare for their daily work tending the Garden. Because the Garden's growth seems to surpass their labors, Eve suggests that on this day they work apart.
She thinks they can accomplish more working individually. Adam argues the point with Eve, saying that Raphael has warned them of dangers and that she is more vulnerable by herself. He here she continue this argument — she proposing that they work alone; he proposing that they work link — until Adam finally relents; however, he makes Eve promise to return to their bower soon, Paradise Lost Adams Wreath Essay Milton comments that she will never return to Adam in Paradise Lost Adams Wreath Essay way that she was that morning.
Satan in the form of the serpent is surprised and excited to find Eve alone tending flowers. He watches her and for a few moments becomes enraptured and forgets his evil nature.
Then he remembers what his purpose is — to destroy God's creation. The serpent approaches Eve upright upon its tail. His various acts fail to attract Eve's attention because she is used to dealing with animals. However, when the serpent speaks, complimenting Eve on her beauty, playing on both her vanity and curiosity, Eve is suddenly interested. She is especially curious about how the serpent learned to speak. Satan replies through the serpent that he learned speech by eating the fruit of a particular tree in the Garden.
He acquired speech and the ability to reason and has, therefore, sought Eve out to worship as the most beautiful of God's creations. When Eve inquires which tree gave the serpent his abilities, he takes her to the Tree of Knowledge. Eve tells the serpent that Journal To Religion Editor Resume has forbidden Man to eat from that tree, and she chooses to obey God.
Satan, using the same sophistic reasoning he has used throughout the story, tells Eve that God has tricked her and Adam. He has eaten of the tree and is not dead; neither will they die. Instead the tree will give them knowledge, which will make them like God.
This fact makes God envious and has caused him to demand that Adam and Eve not eat of the tree. Eve is taken in by the words of the serpent, and after some rationalizing, she convinces herself that she should eat the fruit. Now Eve suddenly worships the Tree of Knowledge as a god, even as all nature weeps for her fall.
Her thoughts turn to Adam, and she decides that he must eat the fruit also.
She cannot bear the idea that she might die and Adam would be given another wife. When Eve approaches Adam, he drops the wreath of flowers that he was weaving for her hair.
Eve quickly tells him what she has done, and Adam just as quickly makes his own decision. He allows his physical love and passion for Eve to outweigh his reason.
He knowingly check this out the fruit and is immediately affected with carnal desire for Eve. The two humans exit to engage in "amorous play" The description here is not of love but lust.
After sex, Adam and Eve fall into a deep sleep. They awake and are overcome with shame and guilty knowledge. They both are weeping, and they launch into arguments with each other.
Adam says Eve is at fault; she replies in kind. Milton describes them as spending "fruitless hours" in bitter accusation. Each is willing to blame the other, but neither is willing to accept responsibility. Paradise is gone and in its place guilt, blame, and shame.
Paradise Lost Adams Wreath Essay says that both of them have given way to "Appetite"and reason is lost. Paradise has ended; the earth has begun. Milton's fourth invocation differs from earlier ones in that he does not call on Urania, except obliquely, and he does not mention his blindness. Rather he offers an explanation for his epic and says that the http://agnix.info/edu-help/dissertation-university-of-mauritius.php must now become "Tragic" 6.
The word "tragic" had two connotations for Milton. First, it carried the simple moral meaning of something terribly bad or unfortunate. Christians since the Middle Ages had always considered the falls of Lucifer and Adam tragic.
But "tragic' also refers to the dramatic concept of tragedy as first defined by Aristotle and developed through the centuries to its high achievement in Elizabethan England. Paradise Lost Adams Wreath Essay knew the nature of dramatic tragedy from his study of the Greeks he patterned Samson Agonistes on Greek tragedy as well as from reading Shakespeare and other Elizabethan dramatists he wrote an essay On Shakespeare for the Second Folio. By the seventeenth century, tragedies had assumed a basic format.
The play would Paradise Lost Adams Wreath Essay a noble hero who had a tragic flaw in either personality or actions. The fortunes of the hero would reverse during the play from good to bad with the hero recognizing his own responsibility for these consequences that resulted from his flaw. The end of the play would result in the death of the hero. Throughout the play, fate would, in one form or another, control the action, and, at the end, the audience would experience a catharsis or purging of emotions, resulting from their empathy with the hero.
They should feel pity for the hero and fear for themselves. To see that Paradise Lost has an underlying tragic structure is not difficult.
Adam is a noble character. He has a flaw in his passion for Eve that overrides his reason. He makes the mistake of eating the fruit. He recognizes, eventually, his responsibility for his actions. Death, though not occurring in the epic, is the main result of Adam's action.
Fate God knows what will happen throughout the poem. And finally, Milton wanted his audience to experience pity for Adam and all mankind but fear for the consequences of their own sinful lives. So when Milton speaks of changing his "Notes to Tragic" 6he means more than a passing remark.
Analysis of Paradise Lost by John Milton: Book 9
Yet for all of these connections to tragedy, Paradise Lost is not a tragedy; it is a Christian epic with a tragic core. Adam is a noble hero, but as Milton notes in this prologue, he is not a hero like Achilles, Aeneas, or Odysseus. He is, in Milton's words, a hero of "Patience and Heroic Martyrdom" Ultimately too, Adam is regenerated and reconciled rather than just killed.
Paradise Lost will end on a hopeful — even joyful — note, since through Adam's fall, salvation and eternal life will come to Man through God's mercy and grace. This felix culpa or "happy fault" is not the stuff of tragedy. Moreover, even as an epic, Milton says that he was attempting something different in Paradise Lost.
He did not want to glorify warfare as in Paradise Lost Adams Wreath Essay epics like the Iliad. Instead, in his only description of warfare Book VIhe creates parody rather than magnificence. Rather Milton's goal was to write a Christian epic, specifically a Protestant Christian epic with a new Paradise Lost Adams Wreath Essay of hero, one who wins ultimately through patience and suffering.
At the time Milton wrote this particular invocation, he still prayed to the Muse Urania, Christian inspiration to help him complete his work and to let it gain acceptance in a time when such a work's fate was unclear.
After the invocation, Milton Paradise Lost Adams Wreath Essay this book with Satan who has been absent for the three books in which Adam and Raphael talked. Satan has degenerated as a character. In his speech in Eden, he is unable to make his thoughts logical.
He thinks Earth may be more beautiful than Heaven since God created it after Heaven. He thinks he might be happy on Earth but then argues that he could not be happy in Heaven.
He fusses about Man being tended by angels. Satan's ability to think, which seemed potent in Book I, now appears weak and confused. An even greater indication of Satan's character degeneration is that he is now self-delusional.
In the early more info, he lied but only to get others to do his bidding. In this speech, he lies to himself. He questions whether God actually created the angels, he sees Man as God's revenge on him, he says he took half of all the angels out of Heaven.
Satan who seemed somewhat heroic in his rebellion now seems to be a dangerous con man who has come to believe his own lies. In the early books, the reader can at least see reasoning as well as envy behind Satan's actions, but, here in Book IX, Satan has become the delusional psychopath who believes his own lies. The concept of heroism cannot be stretched to include Satan's attitude and thinking at this point in the epic.
Milton reinforces Satan's degeneration with visual images. Satan creeps along the ground of Eden in a low-lying mist and ultimately takes on the form of the serpent who crawls along the ground. The shape changes Satan has made in Paradise Lost show a pattern. From angel to cherub, from cherub to cormorant, then more info lion and tiger, and finally to toad and snake, Paradise Lost Adams Wreath Essay has progressively made himself more and more earthbound and lowly.
The irony of these shifts in shape is not lost on Satan. That is, as he tries to become like God, he takes on lower and lower forms.
The next scene of Book IX involves the argument between Adam and Eve over whether they should work alone or separately. Some commentators have seen Eve's arguments as a kind of calculated sophistry akin to Satan's that demonstrates Eve's complicity in her own fall.