Feminism is a range of political movementsideologiesand social movements that share a common goal: Feminist movements have campaigned and continue to campaign for women's rights, including the right to voteto hold public office, to workto earn fair wages or equal payto own propertyto receive educationto enter contracts, to have equal rights within marriageand to have maternity leave.
Feminists have also worked to ensure access to legal abortions and social integrationand to protect women and girls from rapesexual harassmentand domestic violence. Feminist campaigns are generally considered to be a main force behind major historical societal changes for women's rights, particularly continue reading the West, where they are near-universally credited with achieving women's suffrage, gender neutrality in Englishreproductive rights for women including access to contraceptives and abortionand the right to enter into contracts and own property.
Numerous feminist movements and ideologies have developed over the years and represent different viewpoints and aims. Some forms of feminism have been criticized for taking into account only white, middle class, and college-educated perspectives. This criticism led to the creation of ethnically specific or multicultural forms of feminism, including black feminism and intersectional feminism.
Most western feminist historians contend that all movements working to obtain women's rights should be considered feminist movements, even when they did not or do not apply the term to themselves.
Those historians use the label " protofeminist " to describe earlier movements. The history of the modern western feminist movements is divided into three "waves". The first wave comprised women's suffrage movements of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, promoting women's right to vote. The second wave was here with the ideas and actions of the women's liberation movement beginning in the s.
The second wave campaigned for legal and social equality for women. The third wave is a continuation of, and a reaction to, the perceived failures of second-wave feminism, which began in the s. First-wave feminism was a period of activity during the 19th century and early twentieth century. In the UK and eventually the US, it focused on the promotion of equal contract, marriage, parenting, and property rights for visit web page. By the end of the 19th century, a number of important steps had been made with the passing of legislation such as the UK Custody of Infants Act which introduced the Tender years doctrine for child custody arrangement and gave woman the right of custody of their children for the first time.
For example, Victoria passed legislation inNew South Wales inand the remaining Australian colonies passed similar legislation between and Therefore, with the turn of the 19th century activism had focused primarily on gaining political power, particularly the right of women's suffragethough some feminists were active in campaigning for women's sexualreproductiveand economic rights as well.
Women's suffrage began in Britain's Australasian colonies at the close of the 19th century, with the self-governing colonies of New Zealand granting women the right to vote in and South Australia granting female suffrage the right to vote and stand for parliamentary office in This was followed by Australia granting female suffrage in In Britain the Suffragettes and the Suffragists campaigned for the women's vote, and in the Representation of the People Act was passed granting the vote to women over the age of 30 who owned property.
In this Pay To Do Women And Gender Studies Letter extended to all women over Anthonywho each campaigned for the abolition of slavery prior to championing women's right to vote. These women were influenced by the Quaker theology of spiritual equality, which asserts that men and women are equal under God. The term first wave was coined retroactively to categorize these western movements after the term second-wave feminism began to be used to describe a newer feminist movement that focused on fighting social and cultural inequalities, as well political inequalities.
During the late Qing period and reform movements such as the Hundred Days' ReformChinese feminists called for women's liberation from traditional roles and Neo-Confucian gender segregation. Pay To Do Women And Gender Studies LetterQasim Aminconsidered the "father" of Arab feminism, wrote The Liberation of Womenwhich argued for legal and social reforms for women.
The Iranian Constitutional Revolution in triggered the Iranian women's movementwhich aimed to achieve women's equality in educationmarriage, careers, and legal rights. In Francewomen obtained the right to vote only with the Provisional Government of the French Republic of 21 April The Consultative Assembly of Algiers of proposed on 24 March to grant eligibility to women but following an amendment by Fernand Grenierthey were given full citizenship, including the right to vote.
Grenier's proposition was adopted 51 to In Mayfollowing the November electionsthe sociologist Robert Verdier minimized the " gender gap ", stating in Le Populaire that women had not voted in a consistent way, dividing themselves, as men, according to social classes.
During the baby boom period, feminism waned in importance. Wars both World War I and World War II had seen the provisional emancipation of some women, but post-war periods signalled the return to conservative roles.
By the mid 20th century, in some European countries, women still lacked some significant rights.
Feminists in these countries continued to fight for voting rights. In Switzerlandwomen gained the right to vote in federal elections in ;  but in the http://agnix.info/edu-help/professional-masters-essay-proofreading-for-hire-usa.php of Appenzell Innerrhoden women obtained the right to vote on local issues only inwhen the canton was forced to do so by the Federal Supreme Court of Switzerland.
Three prior referendums held inand had failed to secure women's right to vote.
Feminists continued to campaign for the reform of family laws which gave husbands control over their wives. Although by the 20th century coverture had been abolished in the UK and the US, in many continental European countries married women still had very few rights.
For instance, in France married women did not receive the right to work without their husband's permission until Second-wave feminism is a feminist movement beginning in the early s  and continuing to the present; as such, it coexists with third-wave feminism.
Second-wave feminism is largely concerned with issues of equality beyond suffrage, such as ending gender discrimination. Second-wave feminists see women's cultural and political inequalities as inextricably linked and encourage women to understand aspects of their personal lives as deeply politicized and as reflecting sexist power structures.
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visit web page The feminist activist and author Carol Hanisch coined the slogan "The Personal is Political", which became synonymous with the second wave.
Second- and third-wave feminism in China has been characterized by a reexamination of women's roles during the communist revolution and other reform movements, and new discussions about whether women's equality has actually been fully achieved. InPresident Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt initiated " state feminism ", which outlawed discrimination based on gender and granted women's suffrage, but also blocked political activism by feminist leaders. In Latin Americarevolutions brought changes in women's status in countries such as Nicaraguawhere feminist ideology during the Sandinista Revolution aided women's quality of life but fell short of achieving a social and ideological change.
InBetty Friedan 's book The Feminine Mystique was published and helped voice the discontent that American women felt. The book proved highly successful, almost becoming a bible for feminists and a spur for political activists. The book's success also meant that Friedan could lecture her views while she was on tour in Within ten years, after Friedan's successful publishing, women made up more than half of the total percentage in the First World workforce.
In the early s in the USA, third-wave feminism began as a response to perceived failures of the second wave and to the backlash against initiatives and movements created by the second wave. Third-wave feminism distinguished itself from the second wave around issues of sexualitychallenging female heterosexuality and celebrating sexuality as a means of female empowerment.
Third-wave feminists often focus on " micro-politics " and challenge the second wave's paradigm as to what is, or is not, good for women, and tend to use a post-structuralist interpretation of gender and sexuality.
Standpoint theory is a feminist theoretical point of view that believes a persons' social position influences their knowledge. This perspective argues that research and theory treats women and the feminist movement as insignificant and refuses to see traditional science as unbiased. The term post-feminism is used to describe a range of viewpoints reacting to feminism since the s.
While not being "anti-feminist", post-feminists source that women have achieved second wave goals while being critical of third wave feminist goals.
The term was first used to describe a backlash against second-wave feminism, but it is now a label for a wide range of theories that take critical approaches to previous feminist discourses and includes challenges to the second wave's ideas.
Analytical; Anarchist; Atheist; Conservative; Cultural; Cyber; Difference; Eco-Vegetarian; Equality; Fat; French. French post-structuralist; Gender; Global; Hip-hop. Mary Brinton answers questions about how the United States compares to other countries on women, the workplace, and pay. Women in the U.S. who work full time, year round are typically paid only 80 cents for every dollar paid to their male counterparts. The wage gap has stagnated, with. Jul 18, · It’s Not Just Sexism, Women Do Suffer More From Mental Illness. Why do mainstream mental health professionals give so little attention to the question of.
Feminist theory is the extension of feminism into theoretical or philosophical fields. It encompasses work in a variety of disciplines, including anthropologysociologyeconomicswomen's studiesliterary criticism  art history psychoanalysis  and philosophy.
While providing a critique of these social and political relations, much of feminist theory also focuses on the promotion of women's rights and interests. Themes explored in feminist theory include discrimination, stereotypingobjectification especially sexual objectificationoppressionand patriarchy.
The first she calls "feminist critique", in which the feminist reader examines the ideologies behind literary phenomena. The second Showalter calls " gynocriticism ", in which the "woman is producer of textual meaning". However, as the scholar Elizabeth Source points out, "none of these French feminists align themselves with the feminist movement as it appeared in the Anglophone world".
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Some branches of feminism closely track the political leanings of the larger society, such as liberalism and conservatism, or focus on the environment.
Liberal feminism seeks individualistic equality of men and women through political and legal reform without altering the structure of society. Catherine Rottenberg has argued that the neoliberal shirt in Liberal feminism has led to that form of feminism being individualized rather than collectivized and becoming detached from social inequality. Radical feminism considers the male-controlled capitalist hierarchy as the defining feature of women's oppression and the total uprooting and reconstruction of society as necessary.
Libertarian feminism conceives of people as self-owners and therefore as entitled to freedom from coercive interference. Lesbian feminism is thus closely related. Other feminists criticize separatist feminism as sexist. Rosemary Hennessy and Chrys Ingraham say that materialist forms of feminism grew out of Western Marxist thought and have inspired a number of different but overlapping movements, all of which are involved in a critique of Pay To Do Women And Gender Studies Letter and are focused on ideology's relationship to women.
Sara Ahmed argues that Black and Postcolonial feminisms pose a challenge "to some of the organizing premises of Western feminist thought. Since that time, women in developing nations and former colonies and who are of colour or various ethnicities or living in poverty have proposed please click for source feminisms. In the late twentieth century various feminists began to argue that gender roles are socially constructed  and that it is impossible to generalize women's experiences across cultures and histories.
Riot grrls took an anti-corporate stance of self-sufficiency and self-reliance. According to poll, 18 percent of Americans consider themselves feminists, while 85 percent reported they believe in "equality for women". Despite the popular belief in equal rights, 52 percent did not identify as feminist, 26 percent were unsure, and source percent provided no response.
Feminist views on sexuality vary, and have differed by historical period and by cultural context. Feminist attitudes to female sexuality have taken a few different directions. Matters such as the sex industrysexual representation in the media, and issues regarding consent to sex under conditions of male dominance have been particularly controversial among feminists. This debate has culminated in the late s and the s, in what came to be known as the feminist sex warswhich pitted anti-pornography feminism against sex-positive feminismand parts of the feminist movement Pay To Do Women And Gender Studies Letter deeply divided by these debates.
Over the course of the s, a large number of influential women accepted lesbian and bisexual women as part of feminism. Opinions on the sex industry are diverse. Feminists critical of the sex industry generally see it as the exploitative result of patriarchal social structures which reinforce sexual and cultural attitudes complicit in rape and sexual harassment. Alternately, feminists who support at least part of the sex industry argue that it can be a medium of feminist expression and a means for women to take control of their sexuality.
Feminist views of pornography range from condemnation of pornography as a form of violence against womento an embracing of some forms of pornography as a medium of feminist expression. For feminists, a woman's right to control her own sexuality is a key issue. Feminists such as Catharine MacKinnon argue that women have very little control over their own bodies, with female sexuality being largely controlled and defined by men in patriarchal societies.
Feminists argue that sexual violence committed by men is often rooted in ideologies of male sexual entitlement, and that these systems grant women very few legitimate options to refuse sexual advances.
Feminists argue that all cultures are, in one way or another, dominated by ideologies that largely deny women the right to decide how to express their sexuality, because men under patriarchy feel entitled to define sex on their own terms.
This entitlement can take different forms, depending on the culture. In many parts of the world, especially in conservative and religious cultures, marriage is regarded as an institution which requires a wife to be sexually available at all times, virtually without limit; thus, forcing or coercing sex on a wife is not considered a crime or even an abusive behaviour.
This is played out in the sexual objectification of women, with pornography and other forms of sexual entertainment creating the fantasy that all women exist solely for men's sexual pleasure, and that women are readily available and desiring to engage in sex at any time, with any man, on a man's terms.
Sandra Harding says that the "moral and political insights of the women's movement have inspired social scientists and biologists to raise critical questions about the ways traditional researchers have explained gender, sex and relations within and between the social and natural worlds.