The themes or themata Greek: They were established in the mid-7th century in the aftermath of the Slavic invasion of the Balkans and Muslim conquests of parts of Byzantine territory, and replaced the earlier provincial system established by Diocletian and Constantine the Great.
In their origin, the first themes were created from the areas of encampment of the field armies of the East Resort Reservation System Thesis armyand their names corresponded to the military units that had existed in those areas.
The theme system reached its apogee in the 9th and 10th centuries, as older themes were split up and the conquest of territory resulted in the creation of new ones. click
The original theme system underwent significant changes in the 11th and 12th centuries, but the term remained in use as a provincial and financial circumscription until the very end of the Empire.
During the late 6th and early 7th centuries, the Eastern Roman Empire was under frequent attack from all sides.
The Lombards occupied northern Italylargely unopposed. In order to face the mounting pressure, in the more distant provinces of the West, recently regained by Justinian I r. In essence however they merely recognized and formalized the greater prominence of the local general, or magister militumover the respective civilian praetorian prefect as a result of the provinces' precarious security situation.
This trend had already featured in some of the administrative reforms http://agnix.info/edu-help/how-2-make-a-resume.php Justinian I in the s. Justinian had given military authority to the governors of individual provinces plagued by brigandage in Asia Minorbut more importantly, he had also created the exceptional combined military-civilian circumscription of the quaestura exercitus and abolished the civilian Resort Reservation System Thesis of Egyptputting a dux with combined authority at the head of each of its old provinces.
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The rapid Muslim conquest of Syria and Egypt and consequent Byzantine losses in manpower and territory meant that the Empire found itself struggling for survival. In order to respond to this unprecedented crisis, the Empire was drastically reorganized. The origin and early nature of the themes has been heavily disputed amongst scholars. The very name thema is of uncertain etymology, but most scholars follow Constantine Porphyrogennetoswho records that it originates from Greek Resort Reservation System Thesis "placement".
For most of the 20th century, the establishment of the themes was attributed to the Emperor Heraclius r. According to Ostrogorsky, this "shows that the process of establishing troops themes in specific areas of Asia Minor has already begun visit web page this time.
Tied to the question of chronology is also the issue of a corresponding social and military transformation. The traditional view, championed by Ostrogorsky, holds that the establishment of the themes also meant the creation of a new type of army. In his view, instead of the old force, heavily reliant on foreign mercenaries, the new Byzantine army was based on native farmer-soldiers living on state-leased military estates.
What is clear is that at some point in the mid-7th century, probably in the late s and s, the Empire's field armies were withdrawn to Anatolia, the last major contiguous territory remaining to the Empire, and assigned to the districts that became known as the themes. Territorially, each of check this out new themes encompassed several of the older provinces, and with a few exceptions, seems to have followed the old provincial boundaries.
It occupied the old areas of the PontusArmenia Minor and northern Cappadociawith its capital at Amasea. It covered southern central Asia Minor, and its capital Resort Reservation System Thesis Amorium. It provided the bulk of the Byzantine navy facing the new Arab fleets, which after the Battle of the Masts contested control of the Mediterranean with the Empire. The part of the region of Thrace under Byzantine control was probably constituted as a theme at aboutas a response to the Bulgar threat, although for a time the command over Thrace appears to have been exercised by the Count of the Opsikion.
At the same time, Crete and the imperial exclave of Cherson in the Crimea formed independent archontiai. Thus, by the turning of the Resort Reservation System Thesis, the themes had become the dominant feature of imperial administration. Their large size and power however made their generals prone to revolt, as had been evidenced in the turbulent period —, and would again during the great revolt of Artabasdos in — Despite the Resort Reservation System Thesis of the themes, it was some time before they became the basic unit of the imperial administrative system.
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Although they had become associated with specific regions by the early 8th century, it took until Resort Reservation System Thesis end of the 8th century for the civil fiscal administration to begin being organized around them, instead of following the old provincial system. At the same time, the need to protect the Anatolian heartland of Byzantium from the Arab raids led to the creation, in the later 8th and early 9th centuries, of a series of small frontier districts, the kleisourai or kleisourarchiai "defiles, enclosures".
Gradually, most of these were elevated to full themes.
With the beginning of the Byzantine offensives in the East and the Balkans in the 10th century, especially under the warrior-emperors Nikephoros II r. As their name reveals, they were mostly populated by Armenianseither indigenous or settled there by the Byzantine authorities. One of their peculiarities was the extremely large number of officers the theme of Charpezikion alone counted 22 senior and 47 junior tourmarchai.
While well suited for defence, the "Armenian" themes were incapable of responding to major invasions or undertake sustained offensive campaigns on their own. Thus, from the s, more and more professional regiments, both from the old tagmata and newly raised formations, were stationed along the border.
To command them as well as coordinate the forces of the small frontier themes, a number of large regional commands "ducates" or "catepanates"under a doux or katepanowere set up. In the East, the three original such commands, Resort Reservation System Thesis up by John Tzimiskes, were those of the doukes of AntiochChaldia and Mesopotamia.
As Byzantium expanded into Greater Armenia in the early 11th century, these were complemented or replaced by the commands of IberiaVaspurakanEdessa and Ani. The series of soldier-emperors culminating in Basil II led to a situation where by Byzantium was more powerful than any of its enemies. At the same time, the mobile, professional forces of the tagmata gained in importance over the old thematic armies and fleets Resort Reservation System Thesis the interior, which soon began to be neglected.
Indeed, from the early 11th century military service was increasingly commuted to cash payments. While the frontier ducates were able to meet most local threats, the dissolution of the old theme-based defensive system deprived the Byzantine defensive system of any strategic depth. Coupled with increasing link on foreign mercenaries and the forces of allied and vassal states, as well as the revolts and civil wars resulting from the widening rift between the civilian bureaucracy in Constantinople and the land-holding military elites the dynatoiResort Reservation System Thesis the time of the Battle of Manzikert inthe Byzantine army was already undergoing a severe crisis and collapsed completely in the battle's aftermath.
The term thema was ambiguous, referring both to a form of military tenure and to an administrative division. A theme was an arrangement of plots of land given for farming to the soldiers. The soldiers were still technically a military unit, under the command of a strategosand they did not own the land they worked as it was still controlled by the state. Therefore, for its use the soldiers' pay was reduced. By accepting this proposition, the participants agreed that their descendants would also serve in the military and work in a theme, thus simultaneously reducing the need for unpopular conscription as well as cheaply maintaining the military.
It also allowed for the settling of conquered lands, as there was always a substantial addition made to public lands during a conquest. The commander of a theme, however, did not only command his soldiers.
He united the civil and military jurisdictions in the territorial area in question. Thus the division set up by Http://agnix.info/edu-help/popular-mba-essay-writer-site.php between civil governors praesides etc.
The following table illustrates the thematic structure as found in the Thracesian Theme, c. This list includes the large "traditional" themes established in the period from the inception of the theme system in c. These were the new major or minor themes provincesestablished during the Byzantine conquests, in the East the so-called "Armenian" themes or generalships, strategiaiin Italy and in the Balkans. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the album, see Themata album.
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. Praetorian prefects Magister officiorum Comes sacrarum largitionum Comes rerum privatarum Quaestor sacri palatii. Logothetes tou dromou Sakellarios Logothetes tou genikou Logothetes tou stratiotikou Chartoularios tou sakelliou Chartoularios tou vestiariou Epi tou eidikou Protasekretis Epi ton deeseon.
Themata Kleisourai Bandon Catepanates.
Secular Sacred Cross-in-square Domes. Designations for types of administrative territorial entities. Insular area Local government area Protected area Special area Statistical area Combined statistical area Metropolitan statistical area Micropolitan statistical area Urban area.
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