Theatre or theater  is a collaborative form of fine art that uses live performers, typically actors or actressesto present the experience of a real or imagined event before a live audience in a specific place, often a stage.
The performers may communicate this experience to the audience through combinations of gesture, speech, song, music, and dance.
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Elements of art, such as painted scenery and stagecraft such as lighting are used to enhance the physicality, presence and immediacy of the experience.
Modern Western theatre comes, in large measure, from ancient Greek dramafrom which it borrows technical terminology, classification into genres, and many of its themes, stock charactersand plot elements.
Theatre artist Patrice Pavis defines theatricality, theatrical languagestage writing and the specificity of theatre as synonymous expressions that differentiate theatre from the other performing artsliterature and the arts in general.
Modern theatre, broadly defined, includes performances of plays and musical theatre. There are connections between theatre and the art forms of balletopera which uses staged, costumed performances with singing and orchestral accompaniment and various other forms.
The city-state of Athens is where western theatre originated. Participation in the city-state's many festivals—and mandatory attendance at the City Dionysia as an audience member or even as a participant in the theatrical productions in particular—was an important part of Type My Theater Studies Term Paper. The origins of theatre in ancient Greece, according to Aristotle — BCEthe first theoretician of theatre, are to be found in the festivals that honoured Dionysus.
The performances were given in semi-circular auditoria cut into hillsides, capable of seating 10,—20, people. The stage consisted of a dancing floor orchestradressing room and scene-building area skene. Since the words were the most important part, good acoustics and clear delivery were paramount. The actors always men wore masks appropriate to the characters they represented, and each might play several parts. Athenian tragedy—the oldest surviving form of tragedy—is a type of dance -drama that formed an important part of the theatrical culture of the city-state.
No tragedies from the 6th century BCE and only 32 of the more than a thousand that were performed in during the 5th century BCE have survived. Most Athenian tragedies dramatise events from Greek mythologythough The Persians —which stages the Persian response to news of their military defeat at the Battle of Salamis in Type My Theater Studies Term Paper the notable exception in the surviving drama.
Old Comedy survives today largely in the form of the eleven surviving plays of Aristophaneswhile Middle Comedy is largely lost preserved only in relatively short fragments in authors such as Athenaeus of Naucratis.
New Comedy is known primarily from the substantial papyrus fragments of Menander. Aristotle defined comedy as a representation of laughable people that involves some kind of visit web page or ugliness that does not cause pain or disaster.
In addition to the categories of comedy and tragedy at the City Dionysia, the festival also included the Satyr Play. Finding its origins in rural, agricultural rituals dedicated to Dionysus, the satyr play eventually found its way to Athens in its most well-known form. Satyr's themselves were tied to the god Dionysus as his loyal woodland companions, often engaging in drunken revelry and mischief at his side. The satyr play itself was classified as tragicomedy, erring on the side of the more modern burlesque traditions of the early twentieth century.
The plotlines of the plays were typically concerned with the dealings of the pantheon of Gods and their involvement in human affairs, backed by the chorus of Satyrs.
However, according to Webster, satyr actors did not always perform typical satyr actions and would break from the acting traditions http://agnix.info/edu-help/how-to-write-a-book-report-ending.php to the character type of a mythical forest creature. Western theatre developed and expanded considerably under the Romans.
The Roman historian Livy wrote Type My Theater Studies Term Paper the Romans first experienced theatre in the 4th century BCE, with a performance by Etruscan actors. Although Rome had a native tradition of performance, the Hellenization of Roman culture in the 3rd century BCE had a profound and energizing effect on Roman theatre and encouraged the development of Latin literature of the highest quality for the stage.
The only surviving Roman tragedies, indeed the only plays of any kind from the Roman Empire, are ten dramas- nine of them pallilara- attributed to Lucuis Annaeus Seneca 4 b.
The earliest-surviving fragments of Sanskrit drama date from the 1st century AD. The Treatise is the most complete work of dramaturgy in the ancient world. It addresses actingdancemusicdramatic constructionarchitecturecostumingmake-uppropsthe organisation of companies, the audience, competitions, and offers a mythological account of the origin of theatre. Sanskrit theatre was performed on sacred ground by priests who had been trained in the necessary skills dance, music, and recitation in a [hereditary process].
Its aim was both to educate and to entertain. Under the patronage of royal courts, performers belonged to professional companies that were directed by a stage manager sutradharawho may also have acted. Certain sentiments were considered inappropriate for men to enact, however, and were thought better suited to women. Some performers played characters their own age, while others played ages different from their own whether younger or older. Of all the elements Type My Theater Studies Term Paper theatre, the Treatise gives most attention to acting abhinayawhich consists of two styles: Its visit web page is regarded as the highest achievement of Sanskrit literature.
Actors may have specialised in a particular type. The last was inspired by a story in the Mahabharata and is the most famous. It was the first to be translated into English and German. The next great Indian dramatist was Bhavabhuti c.
He is said to have written the following three plays: Malati-MadhavaMahaviracharita and Uttar Ramacharita. Among these three, the last two cover between here the entire epic of Ramayana.
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The powerful Indian emperor Harsha — is credited with having written three plays: There are references to theatrical entertainments in China as early as the Shang Dynasty ; they often involved happiness, mimes, and acrobatic displays. During this era, Ming Huang formed an acting school known as The Pear Garden to produce a form of drama that was primarily musical. That is why actors are commonly called "Children of Type My Theater Studies Term Paper Pear Garden.
There were two distinct forms of shadow puppetry, Pekingese northern and Cantonese southern. The two styles were differentiated by the method of making the puppets and the positioning of the rods Ball Essays On Revolutionary Mothers lot the puppetsas opposed to the type of play performed by the puppets.
Both styles generally performed plays depicting great adventure and fantasy, rarely was this very stylized form of theatre used for political propaganda. Cantonese shadow puppets were the larger of the two. They were built using thick leather which created more substantial shadows. Symbolic color was also very prevalent; a black face represented honesty, a red one bravery. Thus, they were not seen by the audience when the shadow was created. Pekingese puppets were more delicate and smaller.
They were created out of thin, translucent leather here taken from the belly of a donkey. They were painted with vibrant paints, thus they cast a very colorful shadow.
The thin rods which controlled their movements were attached to a leather collar at the neck of the puppet. The rods ran parallel to the bodies of the puppet then turned at a ninety degree angle to connect to the neck. While these rods were visible when the shadow was here, they laid outside the shadow of the puppet; thus they did not interfere with the appearance of the figure.
The rods attached at the necks to facilitate the use of multiple heads with one body. When the heads were not being used, they were stored in a muslin book or fabric lined box. The heads were always removed at night. Here was in keeping with the old superstition that if left intact, the puppets would Type My Theater Studies Term Paper to life at night.
Some puppeteers went so far as to store the heads in one book and the bodies in another, to further reduce the possibility of reanimating puppets. Shadow puppetry is said to have reached its highest point of artistic development in the eleventh century before becoming a tool of the government.
In the Song Dynastythere were many popular plays involving acrobatics and music. These developed in the Yuan Dynasty into a more sophisticated form known as zajuwith a four- or five-act structure.
What are the advantages of using the Paperell writing service? from art to business, from maths to theater studies, Perhaps its an important term paper?. Film & Theater studies CRITICAL MOVIE REVIEWInvestigate the Type your 3 -4 page review my writer has done with my research paper. He answered all my questions. Extensive collection of college example essays on all topics and document types structure and type of Can you help me with a current event term paper?. When you are dealing with the subject of domestic partners, you will most likely come across such term as domestic partnership. The first thing to mention is that. Valentin Myers from Nashville-Davidson was looking for type my theater studies type my theater studies annotated bibliography thesis statement term paper.
Yuan drama spread across China and diversified into numerous regional forms, the best known of which is Beijing Opera [ citation needed ]which is still popular today. Xiangsheng is a certain traditional Chinese comedic performance in the forms of monologue or dialogue. Theatre took on many alternate forms in the West between the 15th and 19th centuries, including commedia dell'arte and melodrama.
The general trend was away from the poetic drama of the Greeks and the Renaissance and toward a more naturalistic prose style of dialogue, especially following the Industrial Revolution. Theatre took a big pause during and in England because of the Puritan Interregnum. Theatre was seen as something sinful and the Puritans tried very hard to drive it out of their society.
This stagnant period ended once Charles II this web page back to the throne in in the Restoration. Theatre among other arts exploded, with influence from French culture, since Charles had been exiled in France in the years previous to his reign.
One of the big changes was the new theatre house. The king would have the best seat in the house: Philippe Jacques de Loutherbourg was one of the most influential set designers of the time because of his use of floor space and scenery. Because of the turmoil before this time, there was still some controversy about what should and should not be put on the stage.
Jeremy Colliera preacher, was one Type My Theater Studies Term Paper the heads in this movement through his piece A Short View of the Immorality and Profaneness of the English Stage. The beliefs in this paper were mainly held by non-theatre goers and the remainder of the Puritans and very religious of the time. The main Type My Theater Studies Term Paper was if seeing something immoral on stage affects behavior in the lives of those who watch it, a controversy that is still playing out today.
The eighteenth century also introduced women to the stage, which was considered inappropriate earlier. These women were regarded as celebrities also a newer concept, thanks to ideas on individualism that arose in the wake of Renaissance Humanismbut on the other hand, it was still very new and revolutionary that they were on the stage, and some said they were unladylike, and looked down on them. Charles II did not like young men playing the parts of young women, so he asked that women play their own parts.
Comedies were full of the young and very much in vogue, with the storyline following their love lives: While theatre troupes were formerly often travelling, the idea of the national theatre gained support in the 18th century, inspired by Ludvig Holberg. The major promoter of the idea of the national theatre in Germany, and also of the Sturm und Drang poets, was Abel Seylerthe owner of the Hamburgische Entreprise and the Seyler Theatre Company. Through the 19th centurythe popular theatrical forms of RomanticismmelodramaVictorian burlesque and the well-made plays of Scribe and Sardou gave way to the problem plays of Naturalism and Realism ; the farces of Feydeau ; Wagner's operatic Gesamtkunstwerk ; musical theatre including Gilbert and Sullivan 's operas ; F.
Gilbert 's and Oscar Wilde 's drawing-room comedies; Symbolism ; proto- Expressionism in the late works of August Strindberg and Henrik Ibsen ;  and Edwardian musical comedy. The first form of Indian theatre was the Sanskrit theatre. Secular Type My Theater Studies Term Paper were known as akhrajarecorded in medieval adab literature, though they were less common than puppetry and ta'ziya theatre.
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Drama is the specific mode of fiction represented in performance. The enactment of drama in theatre, performed by actors on a stage before an audiencepresupposes collaborative modes of production and a collective form of reception.