Walter Horatio Pater 4 August — 30 July was an English essayist, literary and art critic, and fiction writer, regarded as one of the great stylists.
His works on Renaissance subjects were popular but controversial, reflecting his lost belief in Christianity. Born in Stepney in London's East EndWalter Pater was the second son of Richard Glode Pater, a physician who had moved to London in the early 19th century to practice medicine among the poor.
Dr Pater continue reading while Walter was an infant and the family moved to EnfieldLondon.
Walter attended Enfield Grammar School and was individually tutored by the headmaster. Inhe was sent to The King's School, Canterburywhere the beauty of the cathedral made an impression that would remain with him all his life. He was fourteen when his mother, Maria Pater, died in As a schoolboy Pater read John Ruskin 's Modern Painterswhich helped inspire his lifelong attraction to the study of art and gave him a taste for well-crafted prose.
He gained a school exhibition, with which he proceeded in to Queen's College, Oxford. As an undergraduate, Pater was a "reading man", with literary and philosophical interests beyond the prescribed texts.
FlaubertGautierBaudelaire and Swinburne were among his early favourites. Visiting his aunt and sisters in Germany during the vacations, he learned German and began to read Hegel and the German philosophers.
In Jowett's classes, however, Pater was a disappointment; he took a Second in literae humaniores in As a boy Pater had cherished the idea of entering the Anglican clergybut at Oxford his faith in Christianity had been shaken.
In spite of his inclination towards the ritual and aesthetic elements of the church, he had little interest in Christian doctrine and did not pursue ordination. After graduating, Pater remained in Oxford and taught Classics and Philosophy to private students.
His years of study and reading now paid dividends: The opportunities for wider study and teaching at Oxford, combined with formative visits to the Continent — in he visited FlorencePisa and Ravenna — meant that Pater's preoccupations now multiplied.
The Aesthetic Movement: Walter Pater on the Mona Lisa. The Renaissance (London, ). Berkeley and Los Angeles, , pp. "The presence that rose thus so. The factors most responsible for ensuring essay walter pater mona lisa inclusion of multicultural education for the study of one man. They believe that personal and. The Leonardo essay contains Pater's celebrated reverie on the Mona Lisa Also included were Pater's last (unfinished) essay, Rereading Walter Pater. Walter Pater Mona Lisa Essay methadone essay i'll put her on albuterol online order he forged a solid career in a succession of tv series, including "reasonable. The Aesthetic Movement: Walter Pater on the Mona Lisa The Aesthetic Movement: Walter Pater on the Mona Lisa. The Renaissance (London, ). Certainly Lady Lisa.
He became acutely interested in art and literature, and started to write articles and criticism. First to be printed was an essay on the metaphysics of Coleridge'Coleridge's Writings' contributed anonymously in to the Westminster Review. A few Walter Pater Essay On Mona Lisa later his essay on Winckelmannan early expression of his intellectual and artistic idealismappeared in the same review, followed by 'The Poems of William Morris 'expressing his admiration for romanticism.
In the following years the Fortnightly Review printed his essays on Leonardo da VinciSandro Botticelliand Michelangelo The last three, with other similar pieces, were collected in his Studies in the History of the Renaissancerenamed in the second and later editions The Renaissance: Studies in Art and Poetry.
The Leonardo essay contains Pater's celebrated reverie on the Mona Lisa  "probably still the most famous piece of writing about any picture in the world"  ; the Botticelli essay was the first in English on this painter, contributing to the revival of interest in this artist. The final paragraphs of the William Morris essay were reworked as the book's 'Conclusion'.
This brief 'Conclusion' was to be Pater's most influential — and controversial  — publication. It asserts that our physical lives are made up of scientific processes and elemental forces in perpetual motion, "renewed from moment to moment but parting sooner or later on their ways".
In the mind "the whirlpool is still more rapid": Since all is in flux, to get the most from life we must learn to discriminate through "sharp and eager observation": Through such discrimination we may "get as many pulsations as possible into the given time": Not to discriminate every moment some passionate attitude in those about us Walter Pater Essay On Mona Lisa the brilliancy of their gifts is, on this short day of frost and sun, to sleep before evening.
Here we should "be for ever testing new opinions, never acquiescing in a facile orthodoxy"; and of these, a passion for the arts, "a desire of beauty", has in the summary of one of Pater's editors  "the greatest potential for staving off the sense of more info, because in the arts the perceptions of highly sensitive minds are already ordered; we are confronted with a reality already refined and we are able to reach the personality behind the work".
The Renaissancewhich appeared to some to endorse amorality and "hedonism", provoked criticism from conservative quarters, including disapproval from Pater's former tutor at Queen's College, from the college chaplain at Brasenose College and from the Bishop of Oxford. In the s, letters emerged documenting a "romance"  with a nineteen-year-old Balliol undergraduate, William Money Hardingewho had attracted unfavorable attention as a result of his outspoken homosexuality and blasphemous verse, and who later became a more info. Mallockhad passed the Pater-Hardinge letters to Jowett,  who summoned Pater:.
Benson in his diary "after the dreadful interview with Jowett. He became old, crushed, despairing — and this dreadful weight lasted for years; it was years before he realised that Jowett would not use them. In Mallock parodied Pater's message in a satirical novel The New Republicdepicting Pater as a typically effete English aesthete. The satire appeared during the competition for the Oxford Professorship of Poetry and played a role in convincing Pater to remove himself from consideration.
A few months later Pater published what may have been a subtle riposte: Pater was now at the centre of a small but gifted circle in Oxford — he had tutored Gerard Manley Hopkins in and the two remained friends till September when Hopkins left Oxford   — and he was gaining respect in the London literary world and beyond, numbering some of the Pre-Raphaelites among his friends. Conscious of his growing influence and aware that the 'Conclusion' to his Renaissance could be misconstrued as amoral, he withdrew the essay from the second edition in he was to reinstate it with minor modifications in the third in and now set about clarifying and exemplifying his ideas through fiction.
To this end he published in in Macmillan's Magazine an evocative semi-autobiographical sketch entitled 'Imaginary Portraits 1. The Child in the House', about some of the formative experiences of his childhood Rogers Business Plan "a work", as Pater's earliest biographer put it, "which can be recommended to anyone unacquainted with Pater's writings, as exhibiting most fully his characteristic charm.
These are not so much stories — plotting is limited and dialogue absent — as psychological studies of fictional characters in historical settings, often personifications of new concepts at turning-points in the history of ideas or emotion. Some look forward, dealing with innovation in the visual arts and philosophy; others look back, dramatising neo-pagan themes.
Many are veiled self-portraits exploring dark personal preoccupations. Planning a Walter Pater Essay On Mona Lisa work, Pater now resigned his teaching duties inthough he retained his Fellowship and the college rooms he had occupied sinceand made a research visit to Rome.
Leaving behind the religion of his childhood, sampling one philosophy after another, becoming secretary to the Stoic emperor Marcus AureliusMarius tests his author's theory of the stimulating effect of the pursuit of sensation and insight as an ideal in itself.
Walter pater essay on mona lisa Did you know that you can help us produce ebooks by proof-reading just one page a day? Go to: Distributed Proofreaders. The Aesthetic. During what was to be a wonderful holiday in walter pater essay on mona lisa Africa before starting work. ER. Walter Pater - WikipediaEarly life. Born in Stepney in London's East End, Walter Pater was the second son of Richard Glode Pater, a physician who had moved to London. (see full tribute to the "Mona Lisa" by Walter Pater) Books on the topic of this essay may be found in The Imaginative Conservative.
The novel's opening and closing episodes betray Pater's continuing nostalgia for the atmosphere, ritual and community of the religious faith he had lost. Marius was favourably reviewed and sold well; a second edition came out Walter Pater Essay On Mona Lisa the same year. For the third edition Pater made extensive stylistic revisions.
Inon the resignation of John Ruskin, Pater became a candidate for the Slade Professorship of Fine Art at Oxford Universitybut read article in many ways the strongest of the field, he withdrew from the competition, discouraged by continuing hostility in official quarters. From toPater published four new imaginary portraits in Macmillan's Magazineeach set at a turning-point in the history of ideas or art, and each a study of misfits, men born out of their time, who bring disaster upon themselves — 'A Prince of Court Painters' on Watteau and Jean-Baptiste Pater'Sebastian van Storck' 17th-century Dutch society and painting, and the philosophy of Spinoza'Denys L'Auxerrois' Dionysus and the medieval cathedral-buildersand 'Duke Carl of Rosenmold' the German Renaissance.
These were collected in the volume Imaginary Portraits Here Pater's examination of the tensions between tradition and innovation, intellect and sensation, asceticism and aestheticism, social mores and amorality, becomes increasingly complex. Implied warnings against the pursuit of extremes in matters intellectual, aesthetic or sensual are unmistakable.
The second portrait, 'Sebastian van Storck', Walter Pater Essay On Mona Lisa powerful critique of philosophical solipsism, is perhaps Pater's most striking work of fiction. In Pater published Appreciations, with an Article source on Stylea collection of previously-printed essays on literature.
It was well received. The volume also includes an appraisal of the poems of Dante Gabriel Rossettifirst printed ina few months after Rossetti's death; 'Aesthetic Poetry', a revised version of the William Morris essay of minus its final paragraphs; and an essay on Thomas Brownewhose mystical, Baroque style Pater admired.
The essay on Coleridge reprints 'Coleridge's Writings' but omits its explicitly anti-Christian passages;  it adds paragraphs on Coleridge's poetry that Pater had contributed to T.
Ward's The English Poets Pater suppressed, however, in the second edition of Appreciations the essay 'Aesthetic Poetry' — evidence of his growing cautiousness in response to establishment criticism.
In Pater and his sisters returned to Oxford 64 St Giles. He was now in demand as a lecturer. In this year appeared his book Plato and Platonism.
Here and in other essays on ancient Greece Pater relates to Greek culture the romanticism-classicism dialectic which he had first explored in his essay 'Romanticism'reprinted as the 'Postscript' to Appreciations. The centrifugal — the Ionian, the Asiatic tendency — flying from the centre, throwing itself forth in endless play of imagination, delighting in brightness and colour, in beautiful material, in changeful form everywhere, its restless versatility driving it towards the development of the individual": Harold Bloom noted that "Pater praises Plato for Classic correctness, for a conservative centripetal impulse, against his [Pater's] own Heraclitean Romanticism," but "we do not believe him when he presents himself as a centripetal man".
On 30 JulyPater died suddenly in his Oxford home of heart failure brought on by rheumatic feverat the age of He was buried at Holywell CemeteryOxford. Ina friend and former student of Pater's, Charles Lancelot Shadwell, a Fellow and later Provost of Orielcollected and published as Greek Studies Pater's essays on Greek mythology, religion, art and literature.
This volume contains a reverie on the boyhood of Hippolytus'Hippolytus Veiled' first published in Macmillan's Magazine inwhich has been called "the finest prose ever inspired by Euripides ". The volume also reprints Pater's 'Study of Dionysus'. In the same year Shadwell assembled other uncollected pieces and published them as Miscellaneous Studies. Also included were Pater's last unfinished essay, on Pascal, and two pieces that point to a revival in Pater's final years of his earlier interest in Gothic cathedrals, sparked by regular visits to northern Europe with his sisters.
This piece Shadwell also included in Miscellaneous Studies. Shadwell had accompanied Pater on his visit to Walter Pater Essay On Mona Lisa, and Pater was to dedicate The Renaissance to him and to write a preface to Shadwell's edition Walter Pater Essay On Mona Lisa The Purgatory of Dante Alighieri In Shadwell edited and published seven chapters of Pater's unfinished novel, Gaston de Latourset in turbulent late 16th-century France, the product of the author's interest in French history, philosophy, literature, and art.
Pater had conceived Marius as the first novel of "a trilogy of works of similar character dealing with the same problems, under altered historical conditions";  Gaston was to have been the second, while go here third was to have been set in England in the late 18th century. The Revised Textre-editing the seven chapters and editing the remaining six which Shadwell had withheld as too unfinished.
To lose the moral sense therefore, for instance the sense of sin and righteousness, as Mr. Wilde's heroes are bent on doing so speedily, as completely as they can, is Essays from The Guardian a selection of Pater's book-reviews and an Uncollected Essays were privately printed in and respectively the latter was republished as Sketches and Reviews in A Collected Edition of Pater's works, including all but the last volume, was issued in and was reprinted frequently until the late s.
Toward the end of his life Pater's writings were exercising a considerable influence. The principles of what would be known as the Aesthetic Movement were partly traceable to him, and his effect was particularly felt on one of the movement's leading proponents, Oscar Wildewho paid tribute to him in The Critic as Artist Eliot and Wallace Stevens ;  and Pater's influence can be traced in the subjective, stream-of-consciousness novels of the early 20th century.
In literary criticism, Pater's emphasis on subjectivity and on the autonomy of the reader helped prepare the way for the revolutionary approaches to literary studies of the modern era. Among ordinary readers, idealists have found, and always will find inspiration in his desire click here burn always with this hard, gemlike flame", in his pursuit of the "highest quality" in "moments as they pass".
The Paterian sensibility is also apparent in the political philosophy of Michael Oakeshott. Pater's critical method was outlined in the 'Preface' source The Renaissance and refined in his later writings.
In the 'Preface' he Walter Pater Essay On Mona Lisa initially for a subjective, relativist response to life, ideas, art, as opposed to the drier, more objective, somewhat moralistic criticism practised by Matthew Arnold Walter Pater Essay On Mona Lisa others.
What is this song or picture, this engaging personality in life or in a book, to me? Having a particular temperament under review, he would ask what was the range of forms in which it might find expression. Some of the forms will be metaphysical doctrines, ethical systems, literary theories, religions, myths. Pater's scepticism led him to think that in themselves all such systems lack sense or meaning — until meaning is conferred upon them by their capacity to give expression read more a particular temperament.