Poetry the term derives from a variant of the Greek term, poiesis"making" is a form of literature that uses aesthetic and rhythmic    qualities of language —such as phonaestheticssound symbolismand metre —to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, the prosaic ostensible meaning.
Poetry has a long historydating back to the Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh. Early poems evolved from folk songs such as the Chinese Shijingor from a need to retell oral epics, as with the Sanskrit VedasZoroastrian Gathasand the Homeric epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey. Ancient attempts to define poetry, such as Aristotle 's Poeticsfocused on the uses of speech in rhetoricdramasong and comedy.
Later attempts concentrated on features such as repetition, verse form and rhymeand emphasized the aesthetics which distinguish poetry from more objectively informative, prosaic forms of writing. Poetry uses forms and conventions to suggest differential interpretation to words, or to evoke emotive responses.
Devices such as assonancealliterationonomatopoeia and rhythm are sometimes used to achieve musical or incantatory effects. The use of ambiguitysymbolismirony and other stylistic elements of poetic diction often leaves a poem open to multiple interpretations. Similarly figures of speech such as metaphorsimile and metonymy  create a resonance between otherwise disparate images—a layering of meanings, forming connections previously not perceived. Kindred forms of resonance may exist, between individual versesin their patterns of rhyme or rhythm.
Some poetry types are specific to particular cultures and genres and respond to characteristics of the language in which the poet writes. Readers accustomed to identifying poetry with DanteGoetheMickiewicz and Rumi may think of it as written in lines based on rhyme and regular meter ; there are, however, traditions, such as Biblical poetrythat use other means to create rhythm and euphony.
Vb Senior Developer Resume modern poetry reflects a critique of poetic tradition,  playing with and testing, among other things, the principle of euphony itself, sometimes altogether forgoing rhyme or set rhythm. Some scholars believe that the art of poetry may predate literacy. Epic poetry, including the Odyssey Write A Bibliography For A Poem, the Gathasand the Indian Vedasappears to have been composed in poetic form as an aid to memorization and oral transmission, in prehistoric and ancient societies.
Other forms of poetry developed directly from folk songs.
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The earliest entries in the oldest extant collection of Chinese poetrythe Shijingwere initially lyrics. The efforts of ancient thinkers to determine what makes poetry distinctive as a form, and what distinguishes good poetry from bad, resulted in " poetics "—the study of the aesthetics of poetry. Classical thinkers employed classification as a way to define and assess the quality of poetry.
Notably, the existing fragments of Aristotle 's Poetics describe three genres of poetry—the epic, the comic, and the tragic—and develop rules to distinguish the highest-quality poetry in each Resume From Sleep, based on the underlying purposes of the genre.
Aristotle's work was visit web page throughout the Middle East during the Islamic Golden Age as well as in Europe during the Renaissance. This does not imply that poetry is illogical or lacks narration, but rather that poetry is an attempt to render the beautiful or sublime without the burden of engaging the logical or narrative thought process.
This approach remained influential into the 20th century. During this period, there was also substantially more interaction among the various poetic traditions, in part due to the spread of European colonialism and the attendant rise in global trade.
Some 20th-century literary theoristsrelying less on the opposition of prose and poetry, focused on the poet as simply one who creates using language, and poetry as what the poet creates. Yet other modernists challenge the very attempt to define poetry as misguided. The rejection of traditional forms and structures for poetry that began in the first half of the 20th century coincided with a questioning of the purpose and meaning of traditional definitions of poetry and of distinctions between poetry and prose, particularly given examples of poetic prose and prosaic poetry.
Numerous modernist poets have written in non-traditional forms or in what traditionally would have been considered prose, although their writing was generally infused with poetic diction and often with rhythm and tone established by non- metrical means. While there was a substantial formalist reaction within the modernist schools to the breakdown of structure, this reaction focused as much on the development of new formal structures and syntheses as on the revival of older forms and structures.
Recently, postmodernism has come to convey more completely prose and poetry as distinct entities, and also among genres of poetry, as having meaning only as cultural artifacts. Postmodernism goes beyond modernism's emphasis on the creative role of the poet, to emphasize the role of the reader of a text Hermeneuticsand to highlight the complex cultural web within which a poem is read.
The early 21st century poetic tradition appears to continue to strongly orient itself to earlier precursor poetic traditions such as those initiated by Whitman, Emerson, and Wordsworth. The literary critic Geoffrey Hartman has used the Write A Bibliography For A Poem "the anxiety of demand" to describe contemporary response to older poetic traditions as "being fearful that the fact no longer has a form", building on a trope introduced by Emerson.
Emerson had maintained that in the debate concerning poetic structure where either "form" or "fact" could predominate, that one need simply "Ask the fact for the form. Prosody is the study of the meter, rhythmand intonation of a poem.
Rhythm and meter are different, although closely related. Prosody also may be used more specifically to refer to the scanning of poetic lines to show meter. The methods for creating poetic rhythm vary across languages and between poetic traditions. Languages are often described as having timing set primarily by accentssyllablesor morasdepending on how rhythm is established, though a language can be influenced by multiple approaches.
Japanese is a mora -timed language. EnglishRussian and, generally, German are stress-timed languages. Languages can rely Write A Bibliography For A Poem either pitch, such as in Vedic Sanskrit or Ancient Greek, or tone.
Tonal languages include Chinese, Vietnamese and most Subsaharan languages. Metrical rhythm generally involves precise arrangements of stresses or syllables into repeated patterns called feet within a line.
In Modern English verse the pattern of stresses primarily differentiate feet, so rhythm based on meter in Modern English is most often founded on the pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables alone or elided. The chief device of ancient Hebrew Biblical poetryincluding many of the psalmswas parallelisma rhetorical structure in which successive lines reflected each other in grammatical structure, sound structure, notional content, or all three.
Parallelism lent itself to antiphonal or call-and-response performance, which could also be reinforced by intonation. Thus, Biblical poetry relies much less on metrical feet to create rhythm, but instead creates rhythm based on much larger sound units of lines, phrases and sentences.
Classical Chinese poetics identifies four tones: The formal patterns of meter used in Modern English verse to create rhythm no longer dominate contemporary English poetry.
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In the case of free verserhythm is often organized based on looser units of cadence rather than a regular meter. Robinson JeffersMarianne Mooreand William Carlos Williams are three notable poets who reject the idea that regular accentual meter is critical to English poetry.
In the Western learn more here tradition, meters are customarily grouped according to a characteristic metrical foot and the number of feet per line. This metric system originated in ancient Greek poetryand was used by poets such as Pindar and Sapphoand by the great tragedians of Athens. Similarly, " dactylic hexameter ", comprises six feet per Write A Bibliography For A Poem, of which the dominant kind of foot is the " dactyl ".
Dactylic hexameter was the traditional meter of Greek epic poetrythe earliest extant examples of which are the works of Homer and Hesiod. There are a wide range of names for other types of feet, right up to a choriamba four syllable metric foot with a stressed syllable followed by two unstressed syllables and closing with a stressed syllable. The choriamb is derived from some ancient Greek and Latin poetry. Each of these types of feet has a certain "feel," whether alone or in combination with other feet.
The iamb, for example, is the most natural form of rhythm in the English language, and generally produces a subtle but stable verse. There is debate over how useful a multiplicity of different "feet" is in describing meter. For example, Robert Pinsky has argued that while dactyls are important in classical verse, English dactylic verse uses dactyls very irregularly and can be better described based on patterns of here and anapests, feet which Write A Bibliography For A Poem considers natural to the language.
Vladimir Nabokov noted that overlaid on top of the regular pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in a line of verse was a separate pattern of accents resulting from the natural pitch of the spoken words, and suggested that the term "scud" be used to distinguish an unaccented stress from an accented stress.
Different traditions and genres of poetry tend to use different meters, ranging from the Shakespearean iambic pentameter and the Homeric dactylic hexameter to the anapestic tetrameter used in many nursery rhymes. However, a number of variations to the established meter are common, both to provide emphasis or attention to a given foot or line and to avoid boring repetition.
For example, the stress in a foot may be inverted, a caesura or pause may be added sometimes in Write A Bibliography For A Poem of a foot or stressor the final foot in a line may be given a feminine ending to soften it or be replaced by a spondee to emphasize it and create a hard stop.
Some patterns such as iambic pentameter tend to be fairly regular, while other patterns, such as dactylic hexameter, tend to be highly irregular. In addition, different patterns often develop distinctively in different languages, so that, for example, iambic tetrameter in Russian will generally reflect a regularity in the use of accents to reinforce the meter, which does not occur, or occurs to a much lesser extent, in English.
Rhyme, alliteration, assonance and consonance are ways of creating repetitive patterns of sound. They may be used as an independent structural element in a poem, to reinforce rhythmic patterns, or as an ornamental element. For example, Chaucer used heavy alliteration to mock Old English verse and to paint a character as archaic. Rhyme consists of identical "hard-rhyme" or similar "soft-rhyme" sounds placed at the ends of lines or article source predictable locations within lines " internal rhyme ".
Write A Bibliography For A Poem vary in the richness of their rhyming structures; Italian, for example, has a rich rhyming structure permitting maintenance of a limited set of rhymes throughout a lengthy poem. The richness results from word endings that follow regular forms. English, with its irregular word endings adopted from other languages, is less rich in rhyme. Alliteration is the repetition of letters or letter-sounds at the beginning of two or more words immediately succeeding each other, or at short intervals; or the recurrence of the same letter in accented parts of words.
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Alliteration and assonance played a key role in structuring early Germanic, Norse and Old English forms of poetry. The alliterative patterns of early Germanic poetry interweave meter and alliteration as a key part of their structure, so that the metrical pattern determines when the listener expects instances of alliteration to occur. This can be compared to an ornamental use of alliteration in most Modern European poetry, where alliterative patterns are not formal or carried through full stanzas.
Alliteration is particularly useful in languages with less rich rhyming structures. Assonance, where the use of similar vowel sounds within a word rather than similar sounds at the beginning or end of a word, was widely used in skaldic poetry, but goes back to the Homeric epic.
Consonance provokes a more subtle effect than alliteration and so is less useful as a structural element. In many languages, including modern European languages and Arabic, poets use rhyme in set patterns as a structural element for specific poetic forms, such as balladssonnets and rhyming couplets. However, the use of structural rhyme is not universal even within the European tradition. Much modern poetry avoids traditional rhyme schemes. Classical Greek and Latin poetry did not use rhyme.
Some forms of poetry carry a consistent and well-defined rhyming scheme, such as the chant royal or the rubaiyatwhile other poetic forms have variable rhyme schemes. Most rhyme schemes are described using letters that correspond to sets of rhymes, so if the first, second and fourth lines of a quatrain rhyme with each other and the third line does not rhyme, the quatrain is said to have an "a-a-b-a" rhyme scheme. This rhyme scheme is the Write A Bibliography For A Poem used, for example, in the rubaiyat form.
Poetic form is more flexible in modernist and post-modernist poetry, and continues to be less structured than in previous literary eras.
Many modern poets eschew recognisable structures or forms, and write in free verse. But poetry remains distinguished learn more here prose by its form; some regard for basic formal structures of poetry will be found in even the best free verse, however much such structures may appear to have been ignored. Among major structural elements used in poetry are the line, the stanza or verse paragraphand larger combinations of stanzas or Write A Bibliography For A Poem such as cantos.
Also sometimes used are broader visual presentations of words and calligraphy. These basic units of poetic form are often combined into larger structures, called poetic forms or poetic modes see following sectionas in the sonnet or haiku. Poetry is often separated into lines on a page.
These lines may be based on the number of metrical feet, or may emphasize a rhyming pattern at the ends of lines. Lines may serve other functions, particularly where the poem is not written in a formal metrical pattern.
Lines can separate, compare or contrast thoughts expressed in different units, or can highlight a change in tone.