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Einstein is generally considered the most influential physicist of the 20th century. His father, Hermann Einstein, was originally a featherbed salesman and later ran an electrochemical factory with moderate success.
His mother, the former Pauline Koch, ran the family household. He had one sister, Maria who went by the name Majaborn two years after Albert.
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The first was his encounter Write Me Astronomy Biography a compass at age five. He was mystified that invisible forces could deflect the needle. This would lead to a lifelong fascination with invisible forces. Einstein became deeply religious at age 12, even composing several songs in praise of God and chanting religious songs on the way to school.
This began to change, however, after he read science books that contradicted his religious beliefs. This challenge to established authority left a deep and lasting impression.
At the Luitpold GymnasiumEinstein often felt out of place and victimized by a Prussian-style educational system that seemed to stifle originality and creativity.
One teacher even told him that he would never amount to anything. Yet another important influence on Einstein was a young medical student, Max Talmud later Max Talmeywho often click here dinner at the Einstein home. Talmud became an informal tutor, introducing Einstein to higher mathematics and philosophy.
A pivotal turning point occurred when Einstein was Einstein then asked himself the question Write Me Astronomy Biography would dominate his thinking for the next 10 years: What would a light beam look like if you could run alongside it? If light were a wavethen the Write Me Astronomy Biography beam should appear stationary, like a frozen wave.
Even as a child, though, he knew that stationary light waves had never been seen, so there was a paradox. Inafter his company failed to get an important contract to electrify the city of MunichHermann Einstein moved to Milan to work with a relative. Einstein was left at a boardinghouse in Munich and expected to finish his education.
Alone, miserable, and repelled by the looming prospect of military duty when he turned 16, Einstein ran away six months later and landed on the doorstep of his surprised parents. His parents realized the enormous problems that he faced as a school dropout and draft dodger with no employable skills. His prospects did not look promising. His click at this page showed that he excelled in mathematics and physicsbut he failed at Frenchchemistryand biology.
Because of his exceptional math scores, he was allowed into the polytechnic on the condition that he first finish his formal schooling. He went to a special high school run by Jost Winteler in AarauSwitzerlandand graduated in He also renounced his German citizenship at that time. He was stateless untilwhen he was granted Swiss citizenship. He became lifelong friends with the Winteler family, with whom he had been boarding. He met many students who would become loyal friends, such as Marcel Grossmann, a mathematician, and Besso, with whom he enjoyed lengthy conversations about space and time.
He also met his future wife, Mileva Maric, a fellow physics student from Serbia.
After graduation inEinstein faced one of the greatest crises in his life. Because he studied advanced subjects on his own, he often cut classes; this earned him the animosity of some professors, especially Heinrich Weber. Unfortunately, Einstein asked Weber for a letter of recommendation.
Einstein was subsequently turned down for every academic position that he applied to. Einstein defied his parents, however, and in January he and Maric even had a child, Lieserl, whose fate is unknown. It is commonly thought that she died of scarlet fever or was given up for adoption. In Einstein reached perhaps the lowest point in his life.
The Milky Way for Children, Galaxies and Space: Astronomy for Kids - FreeSchool
Desperate and unemployed, Einstein took lowly jobs tutoring children, but he was fired from even these jobs. The turning point came later that year, when the father of his lifelong friend Marcel Grossmann was able to recommend him for a position as more info clerk in the Swiss patent office in Bern.
For years, Einstein would experience enormous sadness remembering that his father had died thinking him a failure. With a small but steady income for the first time, Einstein felt confident enough to marry Maric, which he did on January 6, Their children, Hans Albert and Eduard, were born in Bern in andrespectively.
He would quickly finish analyzing patent applications, leaving him time to daydream about the vision that had obsessed him since he was What would happen if you raced alongside a light beam? This insight led Einstein to formulate the principle of relativity: However, Mileva had abandoned physics after twice failing her graduate exams, and there is no record of her involvement in developing relativity.
In fact, in his paper, Einstein only credits his conversations with Besso in developing relativity. In the 19th century there were two pillars of physics: Einstein was alone Write Me Astronomy Biography realizing that they were in contradiction and that one of them must fall.
This began to change after he received the attention of just one physicist, perhaps the most influential physicist of his generation, Max Planckthe founder of the quantum theory. He was constantly on the road, speaking at international conferences, and lost in contemplation of relativity.
The couple argued frequently about their children and their meager finances. When he finally divorced Mileva inhe agreed to give her the money he might receive if he ever won a Nobel Prize. One of the deep thoughts that consumed Einstein from to was a crucial flaw in his own theory: His friend Paul Ehrenfest had noticed a curious fact. If a disk is spinning, its rim travels faster than its centre, and hence by special relativity metre sticks placed on its circumference should shrink.
This meant that Euclidean plane geometry must fail for the disk. For the next 10 years, Einstein would be absorbed with formulating a theory of gravity in terms of the curvature of space-time. In November Einstein finally completed the general theory of relativity, which he considered to be his masterpiece. Later they patched up their differences and remained friends.
Einstein would write to Hilbert. I struggled against a resulting sense of bitterness, and I did so with complete success. I once more think of you in unclouded friendship, and would ask you to try to do likewise toward Write Me Astronomy Biography. Today physicists refer to the action from which the equations are derived as the Einstein-Hilbert action, but the theory itself is attributed solely to Einstein. Mercury in tests of relativity. His theory also predicted a measurable deflection of light around the Sun.
As a consequence, he even offered to help fund an expedition to measure the deflection of starlight during an eclipse of the Sun.
In the chaos unleashed after the war, in Novemberradical students seized control of the University of Berlin and held the rector of the college and several professors hostage. Many feared that calling in the police to release the officials would result in a tragic confrontation. Einstein, because he was respected by Write Me Astronomy Biography students and faculty, was the logical candidate to mediate this crisis.
Together with Max BornEinstein brokered a compromise that resolved it. One set sail for the island of Principeoff the coast of West Africaand the other to Sobral in northern Brazil in order to observe the solar eclipse of May 29, Thomsonpresident of the Royal Society, stated:.
This result is not an isolated one, it is a whole continent of scientific ideas. Invitations came pouring in for him to speak around the world. Everywhere he went, the crowds numbered in the thousands. En route from Japan, he received word that he had received the Nobel Prize for Physics, but for the photoelectric effect rather than for his relativity theories.
During his acceptance speech, Einstein startled the audience by speaking about relativity instead of the photoelectric effect.
Einstein also launched the new science of cosmology. His equations predicted that the universe is dynamic—expanding or contracting. During that same visit to CaliforniaEinstein was asked to appear alongside the comic actor Charlie Chaplin during the Hollywood debut of the film City Lights. Einstein also began correspondences with other influential thinkers during this period. He corresponded with Sigmund Freud both of them had sons with mental problems on whether war was intrinsic to humanity.
He discussed with the Indian mystic Rabindranath Tagore the question of whether consciousness can affect existence. It was interesting to see them together—Tagore, the click with the head of a thinker, and Einstein, the thinker with the head of a poet.
It seemed to an observer as though two planets were engaged in a chat. He wrote that he did not believe in a personal God that intervened in human affairs but instead believed in the God of the 17th-century Dutch Jewish philosopher Benedict de Write Me Astronomy Biography —the God Write Me Astronomy Biography harmony and beauty.
We are in the position of a little child entering a huge library filled with books in many different languages. That, it seems to me, is the attitude of this web page the most intelligent human being toward God.
One Hundred Authors Against Einstein was published in When asked to comment on this denunciation of relativity by so many scientists, Einstein replied that to defeat relativity one did not need the word of scientists, just one fact. In December Einstein decided to leave Germany Write Me Astronomy Biography he would never go back.
It became obvious to Einstein that his life was in danger. Read more was even a price on his head. So great Write Me Astronomy Biography the threat that Einstein split with his pacifist friends and said that it was justified to defend yourself with arms against Nazi aggression. To Einstein, pacifism was not an absolute concept but one that had to be re-examined depending on the magnitude of the threat.
Einstein settled at the newly formed Institute for Advanced Study at PrincetonNew Jerseywhich soon became a mecca for physicists from around the world.